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thyrotoxicosis, selenium analogues lithium, candida peliliculosa menengitus

Discussion in 'Adrenal Rx and Leaky Gut Rx' started by chocolate, May 24, 2012.

  1. chocolate

    chocolate Silver

    Selenium analogues of antithyroid drugs--recent developments.

    Roy G, Mugesh G.

    Source



    Department of Inorganic & Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India.

    Abstract



     
  2. chocolate

    chocolate Silver

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21586647

    The fungal pathogen Candida albicans autoinduces hyphal morphogenesis by raising extracellular pH.

    Vylkova S, Carman AJ, Danhof HA, Collette JR, Zhou H, Lorenz MC.

    Source



    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, The University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, Texas, USA.

    Abstract



    pH homeostasis is critical for all organisms; in the fungal pathogen Candida albicans, pH adaptation is critical for virulence in distinct host niches. We demonstrate that beyond adaptation, C. albicans actively neutralizes the environment from either acidic or alkaline pHs. Under acidic conditions, this species can raise the pH from 4 to >7 in less than 12 h, resulting in autoinduction of the yeast-hyphal transition, a critical virulence trait. Extracellular alkalinization has been reported to occur in several fungal species, but under the specific conditions that we describe, the phenomenon is more rapid than previously observed. Alkalinization is linked to carbon deprivation, as it occurs in glucose-poor media and requires exogenous amino acids. These conditions are similar to those predicted to exist inside phagocytic cells, and we find a strong correlation between the use of amino acids as a cellular carbon source and the degree of alkalinization. Genetic and genomic approaches indicate an emphasis on amino acid uptake and catabolism in alkalinizing cells. Mutations in four genes, STP2, a transcription factor regulating amino acid permeases, ACH1 (acetyl-coenzyme A [acetyl-CoA] hydrolase), DUR1,2 (urea amidolyase), and ATO5, a putative ammonia transporter, abolish or delay neutralization. The pH changes are the result of the extrusion of ammonia, as observed in other fungi. We propose that nutrient-deprived C. albicans cells catabolize amino acids as a carbon source, excreting the amino nitrogen as ammonia to raise environmental pH and stimulate morphogenesis, thus directly contributing to pathogenesis.



    IMPORTANCE: Candida albicans is the most important fungal pathogen of humans, causing disease at multiple body sites. The ability to switch between multiple morphologies, including a rounded yeast cell and an elongated hyphal cell, is a key virulence trait in this species, as this reversible switch is thought to promote dissemination and tissue invasion in the host. We report here that C. albicans can actively alter the pH of its environment and induce its switch to the hyphal form. The change in pH is caused by the release of ammonia from the cells produced during the breakdown of amino acids. This phenomenon is unprecedented in a human pathogen and may substantially impact host physiology by linking morphogenesis, pH adaptation, carbon metabolism, and interactions with host cells, all of which are critical for the ability of C. albicans to cause disease.




    If lithium is a yeast infection treatment and a thyroid quieter, what would bind to the ammonia when you feel a headache coming on to stop the ph change? I see the selenium analogue inhibits the growth of another yeast and quiets thyroid... but no mention of this yeast. Selenium stops topical yeast. Why would it need to be an analogue?
     
  3. skline@peak.org

    skline@peak.org New Member


    Wow, Chocolate, this is a really deep thread! And I think I'll go take one of those bags of brazil nuts out of the freezer.



    And what a title for a thread!



    Regards ............. kudos ................... etc.
     
  4. chocolate

    chocolate Silver

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19120662

    Inhibition of hyphae formation and SIR2 expression in Candida albicans treated with fresh Allium sativum (garlic) extract.

    Low CF, Chong PP, Yong PV, Lim CS, Ahmad Z, Othman F.

    Source



    Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

    Abstract

    AIMS:



    The aims of the present study were to determine whether Allium sativum (garlic) extract has any effect on the morphology transformation of Candida albicans, and to investigate whether it could alter the gene expression level of SIR2, a morphogenetic control gene and SAP4, a gene encoding secreted aspartyl proteinase.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:



    Candida albicans cells were incubated with a range of concentrations of fresh garlic extract, and the morphology was monitored via light microscopy. Garlic extract treatment caused the transition of yeast form to hyphal form to be obviated. The expression of SIR2 was down-regulated from 1.2- to 2.5-fold with increasing concentration of the garlic extract, as determined from relative quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. There was no difference in the SAP4 expression in control vs treated cultures.

    CONCLUSIONS:



    Garlic and its bioactive components have the ability to suppress hyphae production and to affect the expression level of SIR2 gene.

    SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY:



    Hyphal production is an essential virulence determinant of C. albicans for invasive infections, therefore garlic and its constituents can be effective not only against colonizing C. albicans strains present in mucosal infections, but also virulent strains causing systemic or invasive candidiasis.
     
  5. chocolate

    chocolate Silver

    http://curezone.com/forums/fm.asp?i=1831654

    Effects of two Lactobacillus strains on lipid metabolism and intestinal microflora in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet

    Ning Xie , Yi Cui , Ya-Ni Yin , Xin Zhao , Jun-Wen Yang , Zheng-Gen Wang , Nian Fu , Yong Tang , Xue-Hong Wang , Xiao-Wei Liu , Chun-Lian Wang and Fang-Gen Lu



    BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2011, 11:53



    Results

    Compared with rats fed a high-cholesterol diet but without LAB supplementation, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides levels were significantly decreased in LAB-treated rats (p
     
  6. chocolate

    chocolate Silver

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6151602

    L-Leucine prevents ammonia-induced changes in glutamate receptors in the brain and in visual evoked potentials in the rabbit.

    Ferenci P, Pappas CS, Jones EA.

    Abstract



    The effect of L-leucine on glutamate receptors in the brain and on visual evoked potentials was studied in hyperammonemic rabbits. Hyperammonemia was induced by the iv infusion of 2.1 mmol NH4Cl/h over 3 hr. Hyperammonemia was followed by a 116% increase in the specific binding of 3H-glutamate to synaptic membranes prepared from the hippocampus. This increase was due to both an increase in the affinity and in the density of the glutamate receptor. The simultaneous infusion of L-leucine (6.7 mmol/hr) completely prevented the ammonia-induced increase in the specific glutamate binding, whereas L-valine and D-leucine had no effect. Hyperammonemia was also associated with typical, reproducible, and reversible changes in visual evoked potentials. The amplitudes of the first negative and the second positive peak decreased, whereas the latencies of these peaks remained unchanged. The simultaneous infusion of L-leucine completely prevented these changes. These findings indicate (1) that L-leucine prevents ammonia-induced changes in the glutamatergic excitatory neurotransmitter system and (2) that pharmacologic doses of L-leucine modulate the effects of hyperammonemia on central neurotransmission as assessed by visual evoked potentials. A causal relationship between the effects of L-leucine on ammonia-induced changes in glutamate receptors and in visual evoked potentials cannot be inferred with confidence. These findings provide a potential alternative explanation for the apparent beneficial effects of infusions of branched-chain amino acids on hepatic encephalography in patients with chronic liver disease.
     
  7. chocolate

    chocolate Silver

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1686641

    Ammonia-induced alterations in glutamate and muscimol binding to cerebellar synaptic membranes.

    Rao VL, Agrawal AK, Murthy CR.

    Source



    School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad, India.

    Abstract



    Binding of glutamate and muscimol (an agonist for GABAA receptors) to their respective receptors has been studied in the cerebellum of normal and hyperammonemic rats. There was a decrease in both high- and low-affinity binding of glutamate in the cerebellum during hyperammonemia. Kinetic studies revealed that the decrease is due to a reduction in the number of binding sites, but not due to changes in the binding affinities. Further studies also revealed that the decrease was only in the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-specific binding sites without any alterations in the binding to non-NMDA sites represented by kianic acid (KA)- and quisqualic acid (QQ)-sensitive receptor sites. These effects were also mimicked when the membrane preparations from the cerebellum of normal animals were incubated with ammonium acetate. Enhancement of muscimol binding was observed in animals injected with ammonium acetate. It is concluded that hyperammonemic states, even in the presence of a functional liver, are capable of altering amino acid neurotransmission and this might play an important role in cerebral dysfunction under these conditions.
     
  8. chocolate

    chocolate Silver

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4629910

    Accelerated cellular uptake and metabolism of L-thyroxine during acute Salmonella typhimurium sepsis.

    DeRubertis FR, Woeber KA.

    Abstract



    The effects of acute Salmonella typhimurium sepsis on the kinetics of peripheral L-thyroxine (T(4)) distribution and metabolism and on serum total and free T(4) concentrations were studied in rhesus monkeys inoculated i.v. with either heat-killed or viable organisms. The rate of disappearance of labeled T(4) from serum was increased within 8 h after inoculation of monkeys with either heat-killed or viable Salmonella. The effects of the heat-killed organisms were transient and no longer evident by 16 h postinoculation. The monkeys inoculated with the viable Salmonella experienced a 2-3 day febrile, septic illness that was accompanied by an increase in the absolute rate of T(4) disposal. In the infected monkeys, serum total T(4) and endogenously labeled protein-bound iodine concentrations fell significantly during the period of acute sepsis and then rose during convalescence to values that exceeded the preinoculation values, suggesting that thyroidal secretion of hormone had increased in response to a primary depletion of the peripheral hormonal pool. Total cellular and hepatic uptakes of T(4) were enhanced by 4 h after inoculation of monkeys with either heat-killed or viable Salmonella, but the increase in total cellular uptake persisted for 24 h only in the monkeys inoculated with the viable organisms. These alterations in T(4) kinetics could neither be correlated with changes in the binding of T(4) in plasma nor attributed to an increase in vascular permeability. Moreover, they could not be ascribed to an in vitro product of bacterial growth, suggesting that the presence of the organisms themselves was required. An acceleration of T(4) disappearance was also observed during Escherichia coli and Diplococcus pucumoniae bacteremias. Our findings are consistent with a primary increase in the cellular uptake and metabolism of T(4) during bacterial sepsis, possibly related to phagocytic cell function in the host.
     
  9. Jack Kruse

    Jack Kruse Administrator

    Selenoproteins are not only big for thyroid issues but are also very depressed in certain epithelial cancers like prostate, and colon Ca.......Selenium is important. Dandruff is the first sign you are light in Selenium.
     
  10. janagram

    janagram New Member

    dandruff? oooh...what about exzema? (aren't they related?)
     
  11. Jack Kruse

    Jack Kruse Administrator

    they are.......
     
  12. Souldanzer

    Souldanzer Banned

    That explains why my dry skin on my scalp I've had since childhood has disappeared since I've become a mostly seafoodist a couple of months ago :)
     
  13. chocolate

    chocolate Silver

    http://www.ithyroid.com/metallothionein.htm

    Inhibitory effect of beta-thujaplicin on ultraviolet B-induced apoptosis in mouse keratinocytes.



    Baba T, Nakano H, Tamai K, Sawamura D, Hanada K, Hashimoto I, Arima Y



    Department of Dermatology, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Japan.



    Sunburn cells are thought to represent ultraviolet B-induced apoptotic keratinocytes. It has been demonstrated that enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants effectively suppress sunburn cell formation, indicating that reactive oxygen species may play a role in the progression of ultraviolet B-induced apoptosis. Metallothionein, a cytosol protein, has antioxidant activity, and overexpression of metallothionein has been reported to reduce the number of sunburn cells in mouse skin. We have also demonstrated that overexpression of metallothionein inhibits ultraviolet B-induced DNA ladder formation in mouse keratinocytes. These findings support the hypothesis that cellular metallothionein may play an important role in the inhibition of ultraviolet B-induced apoptosis in keratinocytes through its antioxidant activity. In the present study, we investigated the effects of beta-thujaplicin, an extract from the woods of Thuja plicata D. Don. and Chamaecyparis obtuse, Sieb. et Zucc., on ultraviolet B-induced apoptosis in keratinocytes and on metallothionein induction. Topical application of beta-thujaplicin decreased the number of ultraviolet B-mediated sunburn cells and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling-positive cells in mouse ear skin. Incubation with beta-thujaplicin suppressed ultraviolet B-induced DNA ladder formation in cultured mouse keratinocytes. Histochemical analysis showed that topical application of beta-thujaplicin induced metallothionein protein in mouse skin. Northern analysis and western blotting revealed significant induction of metallothionein mRNA and metallothionein protein, respectively, in beta-thujaplicin-treated cultured mouse keratinocytes. These findings indicate that beta-thujaplicin inhibits ultraviolet B-induced apoptosis in keratinocytes and strongly suggest that the inhibitory mechanism is due to the antioxidant activity of metallothionein induced by the agent.
     
  14. chocolate

    chocolate Silver

    http://www.ithyroid.com/metallothionein.htm



    Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 2000 Mar;46(2):465-88



    Metallothionein in human disease.



    Simpkins CO



    Hamot Research Center and Tri-State Emergency System, Erie, PA, USA. phippsdian@aol.com



    [Medline record in process]



    Evidence concerning a role for metallothionein (MT) in human disease is reviewed. Current knowledge of MT is juxtaposed with our understanding of the pathogenesis of disease. MT is known to modulate three fundamental processes: 1) the release of gaseous mediators such as hydroxyl radical or nitric oxide; 2) apoptosis, and 3) the binding and exchange of heavy metals such as zinc, cadmium or copper. The capability to specifically manipulate MT levels in cells and in mice is beginning to provide answers regarding how MT could impact complex disease scenarios. Associations among MT and several diseases, including cancer, circulatory and septic shock, coronary artery disease, and Alzheimer's disease have been made. Strong evidence exists that MT modulates the immune system. The primary function of MT remains unknown.
     
  15. chocolate

    chocolate Silver

    http://www.pnas.org/content/81/17/5494.full.pdf

     

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