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The Cradle of Humanity

Discussion in 'Factor X' started by KalosKaiAgathos, Apr 6, 2018.

  1. JanSz

    JanSz Gold

    Last edited: Apr 7, 2018
  2. Jack Kruse

    Jack Kruse Administrator

    5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC), a derivative of 5-methylcytosine (5-mC), is abundant in the brain. Methyl groups have 3H+ on them. The rediscovery of 5-hmC in mammals demonstrates that covalent DNA modifications are more dynamic than previously believed. Is the reason why the brain, especially the frontal lobes loaded with H+ on cytosines how these cells get more information during morphogenesis?

    A protein called nogging mention in Quantum Biology #7 is loaded with deuterium and this protein from bone is used to control brain growth in humans.

    Noggin has a very interesting protein strucutre that can modify human brain growth.

    Hydrogen/deuterium exchange in spaces or proteins can be monitored by mass spectrometry (HDX-MS). HDX-MS has recently emerged as a powerful method for characterizing protein conformational dynamics. The basis of this method is the fact that backbone amides in stable hydrogen-bonded structures (e.g., α-helices and β-sheets) are protected against exchange with the aqueous solvent.

    All protein structures are dynamic, however, and eventually all of the protecting hydrogen bonds will transiently break as the protein—according to thermodynamic principles—cycles through partially unfolded states that correspond to excited free energy levels. As a result, all of the backbone amides will eventually become temporarily solvent-exposed and exchange-competent over time. Consequently, a folded protein in D2O will gradually incorporate deuterium into its backbone amides and this will change its physiologic abilities. Since humans have a large amount of deuterium in their blood plasma this source can be tightly controlled to affect the ECF space to change the kinetics of the process. This process can be readily monitored by mass spectrometry in mitohacks. How is the process controlled? The optical swtich that is deuterium. You'll find out soon enough.

    Fundamental Brain Development
    In mammals, the nervous system develops from ectoderm, the surface layer of the gastrula. Later in development, the mesoderm gives rise to the notochord, which releases the organizer proteins noggin and chordin. These proteins block the suppressive effects of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), allowing the ectoderm to form the neural plate, then the neural tube, and eventually the ventricular system, where neurogenesis proceeds within the walls of the tube to form the CNS, including the brain and spinal cord (Butler & Hodos, 2005; Siegel & Sapru, 2015). The neural plate and neural tube are composed of a single layer of neuroepithelial cells, which can be considered as neural stem cells (NSCs) (Gotz & Huttner, 2005). After closure of the neural tube, neuroepithelial cells undergo asymmetric division to generate a daughter stem cell, plus a more differentiated cell, such as a radial glial (RG) cell or a neuron (Gotz & Huttner, 2005; Huttner & Brand, 1997). With the switch to neurogenesis, all neuroepithelial cells undergo a transformation and give rise to RG cells. RG cells are fate-restricted progenitors, which can either generate nascent neurons by symmetric division or undergo self-renewal by asymmetric division (Gotz & Huttner, 2005; Yao & Jin, 2014).
    Mayuri and Richelle Jones like this.

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