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Sulfur is HUGE!

Discussion in 'The Epi-Paleo Diet' started by chocolate, Apr 15, 2012.

  1. chocolate

    chocolate Silver


    Synergistic enhancement of a copper chelator, bathocuproine disulphonate, and cysteine on in vitro growth of Plasmodium falciparum in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient erythrocytes.

    Tantular IS, Jalloh A, Pusarawati S, Azuno Y, Lin K, Kerong H, Dachlan YP, Ishii A, Kawamoto F.


    Tropical Disease Center, Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia.


    In vitro growth of Plasmodium falciparum is restricted in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient erythrocytes (RBC), as a result of oxidative stress. Bathocuproine disulphonate (BCS), a copper chelator, as well as cysteine have been shown to synergistically stimulate the in vitro growth of various mammalian cells and Trypanosoma under oxygenated conditions. We examined the effects of these two chemicals on the in vitro growth of P. falciparum in G6PD-deficient RBC, and found that addition of BCS and cysteine synergistically enhanced the growth of the P. falciparum FCR-3 strain in these RBC to the same level as in normal RBC. However, BCS or cysteine alone had no stimulatory effect. To explain this synergistic enhancement, changes in thiol, NADPH and glutathione contents were investigated. After addition of cysteine alone, thiol content in the medium decreased rapidly, but when BCS was added, it was maintained at about 35% at 24 hours after incubation, suggesting that BCS stimulates parasite growth in G6PD-deficient RBC by inhibiting copper-mediated oxidation of cysteine in the medium. In these RBC, no increase in NADPH level, but a slight increase in glutathione, was observed in the presence of both BCS and cysteine. The slight increase of glutathione, was probably due to incorporation of cysteine from the medium, although this could not fully explain the synergistic growth enhancement. These findings taken together suggest that cysteine incorporated into G6PD-deficient RBC may help maintain the thiol groups in many proteins, such as membrane proteins, hemoglobin and enzymes, and plays an important role in maintaining an appropriate culture state necessary for parasite growth. We also examined the effects of BCS and cysteine on adaptation of wild isolates of P. falciparum to in vitro cultivation using the candle jar method. Although there was no drastic effect on growth enhancement, the presence of BCS and cysteine accelerated the appearance of schizonts in many isolates.
  2. chocolate

    chocolate Silver


    Mycobacterium tuberculosis WhiB3: a novel iron-sulfur cluster protein that regulates redox homeostasis and virulence.

    Saini V, Farhana A, Steyn AJ.


    Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.



    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), can persist in a latent state for decades without causing overt disease. Since latent Mtb is refractory to current antimycobacterial drugs, the discovery and characterization of the biological mechanisms controlling the entry, maintenance, and emergence from latent infection is critical to the development of novel clinical therapies. RECENT ADVANCES: Recently, Mtb WhiB3, a member of the family of intracellular iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster proteins has emerged as a redox sensor and effector molecule controlling several aspects of Mtb virulence. WhiB3 was shown to contain a 4Fe-4S cluster that specifically reacts with important host gases (O(2) and NO), and exogenous and endogenous metabolic signals to maintain redox balance. Notably, the concept of reductive stress emerged from studies on WhiB3. CRITICAL


    The detailed mechanism of how WhiB3 functions as an intracellular redox sensor is unknown. Sustaining Mtb redox balance is particularly important since the bacilli encounter a large number of redox stressors during infection, and because several antimycobacterial prodrugs are effective only upon bioreductive activation in the mycobacterial cytoplasm.


    How Mtb WhiB3 monitors its internal and external surroundings and modulates endogenous oxido-reductive pathways which in turn alter Mtb signal transduction, nucleic acid and protein synthesis, and enzymatic activation, is mostly unexplored. Modern expression, metabolomic and proteomic technologies should provide fresh insights into these yet unanswered questions.
  3. chocolate

    chocolate Silver

    What Happens If You Get Too Much Sulfur in Your Diet? Photo Credit health supplement pills image by weim from Fotolia.com

    Two forms of sulfur supplements exist in the market: dimethyl sulfoxide, or DMSO, and methylsulfonylmethane, or MSM. Fruits, vegetables, grains, milk, meat and eggs also contain MSM. MSM has important health benefits -- they help form cartilage, tendons and ligaments -- and it can be used for medicinal purposes to decrease pain. DMSO, in addition to having painkilling effects, can reduce swelling. Despite the wide range of health benefits of dietary sulfur, you should not overload on it as research on sulfur overdose is still limited.

    Limited Research

    Due to limited research on possible toxicity effects of dietary fiber, the Food and Nutrition Board at the Institute of Medicine could not establish the recommended intake or the safe upper limit intake of sulfur. However, the World Health Organization and the Food and Agriculture Organization have established the recommended dietary allowance for sulfur-containing amino acid, SAA, at 13 mg per kg per day for healthy adults. Of the studies available, the majority of the findings have pointed to no toxicity effects when participants consumed a large amount of dietary sulfur.

    Read more: http://www.livestrong.com/article/430390-what-happens-if-you-get-too-much-sulfur-in-your-diet/#ixzz1tO0tKxke

    Read more: http://www.livestrong.com/article/430390-what-happens-if-you-get-too-much-sulfur-in-your-diet/#ixzz1tO0dEEql
  4. chocolate

    chocolate Silver



    Sulfation plays role in strengthening protein-protein interactions. Types of human proteins known to undergo tyrosine sulfation include adhesion molecules, G-protein-coupled receptors, coagulation factors, serine protease inhibitors, extracellular matrix proteins, and hormones. Tyrosine O-sulfate is a stable molecule and is excreted in urine in animals. No enzymatic mechanism of tyrosine sulfate desulfation is known to exist.

    By knock-out of TPST genes in mice, it may be observed that tyrosine sulfation has effects on the growth of the mice, such as body weight, fecundity, and postnatal viability.


    Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Ameliorate Autoimmune

    Encephalomyelitis in a Mouse Model of Multiple Sclerosis


    We show that the administration of sorafenib, imatinib,

    or GW2580 ameliorates EAE, raising the possibility that

    these TKI—two of which are already FDA-approved

    drugs—could serve as novel therapeutics for the

    treatment of MS. Further elucidation of the specific

    pathways targeted by these TKI could shed light on the

    pathogenesis of MS and allow the development of more

    specific drugs that may have fewer side effects than the

    current therapies for MS.
  5. quelsen

    quelsen New Member

    13 per kg is huge


    just stunned

    2 grams of sulfur daily for me

  6. janagram

    janagram New Member

    I wish someone could make a recommendation regarding sulphur....that was a lot of information, no way do I know if I should be taking it or not, eating brussels sprouts or not, etc......

    there's "sulphur is huge" and "methionine-free diets increase longevity" all on our forum....
  7. chocolate

    chocolate Silver

    Well sulfur and iron go hand in hand. Its a balancer. The funny thing is, all of those sulphur foods (cruciferous), increase iron absorption. If you have nasty gut bacteria or other wise bacteria that dig on the sulphur, then you have all of these sulphur containing foods increasing iron absorption while the bad guys are eating the sulphur, throwing it off balance. I may just be feeding the bad guys sulphur, now that I think about it. I saw that thinking elsewhere. But I'm not piling on iron and I am chelating it. I've got a low grade fever and I think it's the good kind. If I get flatulence, then I'll quit taking the sulphur. MSM... I'm starting to think the great thing about nuts is the phytic acid. I guess that's the anti-inflammatory. And they are fats. I am also piling on the probiotics and vitamin d. If the liver and kidneys get the metal chelated, it might just wake up the vitamin d receptor. Here's hoping. the next step is just to fast the carbohydrate shells off the bacteria. Those biofilms have magnesium I don't think is getting chelated. After a couple of days, fasting isn't anything.
  8. chocolate

    chocolate Silver

    I think the methionine free diet got severely shot down, at least in my book. The poster arguing for it quit arguing, became incapacitated, or died. I'm gonna think positively that it wasn't death or incapacitation.

    And then, the warm adapted rats thing, and the iron deficient bypassers thing.....
  9. chocolate

    chocolate Silver


    Influence of the bacterial flora of the gut on sulfur amino acid degradation. A study of patients with bacterial overgrowth before and during treatment with oxytetracycline or metronidazole.

    MÃ¥rtensson J, Svensson H, Tobiasson P.


    The urinary excretion of sulfur amino acids and their main degradation products was determined in 10 patients with bacterial overgrowth during treatment with oxytetracycline or metronidazole. A normal excretion of total sulfur and inorganic sulfate was found during treatment with both antibiotics, indicating a normal intake, uptake, and oxidation of sulfur amino acids to inorganic sulfate. Irrespective of type of antibiotic given, a normalization of the increased ester sulfate excretion was found, favoring the opinion that both the aerobic and anaerobic flora of the gut contribute to the formation of sulfate esters. The cystathioninuria found in patients with bacterial overgrowth was normalized only by treatment with metronidazole. Both antibiotics resulted in a reduced excretion of taurine and thiosulfate, but especially for thiosulfate, the effect of metronidazole treatment was more pronounced. The results suggest that the bacterial flora of the gut, such as anaerobes, may be of importance in the formation of thiosulfate in the human body.

    Can anyone translate what this means....is excretion good, like lots is made or bad like lots is dumped?
  10. quelsen

    quelsen New Member

    took 2 grams of msm before bed, BEST MORNING EVAH
  11. ealachan

    ealachan New Member

    Why? Why? Sell me the sulfur, Quelsen! I'm ready to buy!
  12. MartiD

    MartiD New Member

    Specifics please Jon....best sleep ever? Woke up alert? Big drop on scale??? What?
  13. quelsen

    quelsen New Member

    woke feeling energized. woke at 4 am.

    al the above references informed my decision but the biggy was that it takes sulfur to clear hormones in the liver. the liver binds spent and excess hormones with sulfur to allow you to excrete them.

    rlee314 likes this.
  14. ealachan

    ealachan New Member

    Do you think MSM would make DIM more effective at metabolising estrogen, or is it doing something totally different?
  15. chocolate

    chocolate Silver

    Sulfite Sensitivity

    — Unrecognized Threat:

    — Is Molybdenum Deficiency

    the Cause?

    Rhoda Papaioannou, M.S.1 and Carl C. Pfeiffer, M.D., Ph.D.1


    As far back as 1913, Rost and Franz

    reported that ingestion of 1 g of sodium sulfite

    per day decreased utilization of protein and fat in

    humans. Such studies have apparently not been

    repeated; hence we must question what the

    biochemical technology for discerning more

    subtle metabolic changes would reveal 70 years

    later about the effects of chronic, albeit lowlevel,

    exposure to sulfites. Sidorenkov (1957)

    has reported that inhaled sulfur dioxide readily

    penetrates into the blood stream from the

    lungs; therefore adverse findings on inhaled

    sulfur dioxide must carry over to ingested

    sulfites. He also finds a marked alteration in

    carbohydrate metabolism, perhaps due to the

    destruction of thiol groups of biologically

    active substances such as insulin. Reduction in

    liver glycogenesis and an increase in protein

    and non-protein nitrogen in the blood is also


    Perhaps the heartburn or indigestion many of

    us suffer after fancy wining and dining out may

    not be mere gluttony (surely we'd eaten that

    much at home before without consequence!)

    but due rather to the 0.007 oz (200 mg) of

    sulfite we may have ingested. 200 mg sulfite can

    make almost anybody vomit, according to

    Lafontaine and Goblet (1955) who induced the

    vomiting reflex in man consistently at such

    doses. And there are known additive effects

    when bisulfite is ingested together with other

    chemicals such as benzoic acid (Prenner and

    Stevens, 1976), another widely used

    preservative which also occurs naturally in

    some foods such as cranberries, cinammon

    and cloves.

    Possible Cause of Sulfite Sensitivity

    A possible explanation for sulfite sensitivity

    might be the widespread molybdenum deficiency

    which we find in a majority of our

    patients (Pfeiffer, 1983; Sohler, 1983). Many

    have no detectable blood molybdenum and

    most have levels below 5 ppb (normal 10 to 100

    ppb). Molybdenum is the trace element

    contained in the enzyme sulfite oxidase which

    detoxifies sulfite to the inert and harmless


    Sulfite oxidase deficiency has been identified

    since 1967 as a rare inborn error of

    metabolism, and recently a new inherited

    disease due to deficiency of the "molybdenum

    cofactor", a constituent of the three enzymes xanthine dehydrogenase, sulfite

    oxidase and aldehyde oxidase, has been

    recognized (Wadman et al., 1983). Neither of these

    genetic diseases responds to molybdenum

    supplementation, for here it is either the enzyme

    which is deficient or the metal in association with

    another moiety which is absent. Nonetheless,

    part of the patients' symptomatology is

    considered due to high accumulated toxic sulfite

    and insufficient sulfate. It is not inconceivable

    that some of the same symptoms may be evoked

    in normal individuals by simple molybdenum

    deficiency in the face of high environmental

    sulfite. Indeed Abumrad et al. (1981) have

    demonstrated that a molybdenum deficient diet

    would result in a sulfur handling defect at the level of

    transformation of sulfite to sulfate.
  16. chocolate

    chocolate Silver


    The main duty of the mineral molybdenum inside the body is to break apart sulfite toxins, thus making molybdenum an antioxidant. The mineral also helps the body to process iron better and helps to metabolize fats and carbohydrates within the body. Molybdenum is stored in the brain, liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys, bones and skin, and needs to be replenished regularly as it is absorbed and eliminated on a routine basis.
    rlee314 likes this.
  17. Rosekelly

    Rosekelly New Member

    Fascinating stuff, thanks! I've been taking 800 gm of MSM a day and have noticed more hair on my eyebrows. I didn't know what to attribute it to, since I'm doing CT and taking so many supplements. Maybe this is it! I'm going to up my dosage. I used to have so much hair I had to wax regularly, but much of it disappeared a couple years ago, including hair on the top of my head. Sad. But now it seems to be growing back!
  18. finnite@dccnet.com

    finnite@dccnet.com New Member

    chocolate see also my question about high ferritin and low molybdenum in the anemia thread regarding symptoms.
  19. finnite@dccnet.com

    finnite@dccnet.com New Member

    powder or capsule?

    powder = nasty stuff but doable

    capsule = more doable I think

    tried earlier in the year, will have to try with the DIM and molybdenum
  20. quelsen

    quelsen New Member

    bought a capsule maker and make my own nac and msm 24 at the time.

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