1. Registering for the Forum

    We require a human profile pic upon registration on this forum.

    After registration is submitted, you will receive a confirmation email, which should contain a link to confirm your intent to register for the forum. At this point, you will not yet be registered on the forum.

    Our Support staff will manually approve your account within 24 hours, and you will get a notification. This is to prevent the many spam account signups which we receive on a daily basis.

    If you have any problems completing this registration, please email support@jackkruse.com and we will assist you.

Sulfur is HUGE!

Discussion in 'The Epi-Paleo Diet' started by chocolate, Apr 15, 2012.

  1. chocolate

    chocolate Silver


    Because the role of elemental sulfur in human nutrition has not been studied extensively, it is the purpose of this article to emphasize the importance of this element in humans and discuss the therapeutic applications of sulfur compounds in medicine. Sulfur is the sixth most abundant macromineral in breast milk and the third most abundant mineral based on percentage of total body weight. The sulfur-containing amino acids (SAAs) are methionine, cysteine, cystine, homocysteine, homocystine, and taurine. Dietary SAA analysis and protein supplementation may be indicated for vegan athletes, children, or patients with HIV, because of an increased risk for SAA deficiency in these groups. Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM), a volatile component in the sulfur cycle, is another source of sulfur found in the human diet. Increases in serum sulfate may explain some of the therapeutic effects of MSM, DMSO, and glucosamine sulfate. Organic sulfur, as SAAs, can be used to increase synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), glutathione (GSH), taurine, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC). MSM may be effective for the treatment of allergy, pain syndromes, athletic injuries, and bladder disorders. Other sulfur compounds such as SAMe, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), taurine, glucosamine or chondroitin sulfate, and reduced glutathione may also have clinical applications in the treatment of a number of conditions such as depression, fibromyalgia, arthritis, interstitial cystitis, athletic injuries, congestive heart failure, diabetes, cancer, and AIDS. Dosages, mechanisms of action, and rationales for use are discussed. The low toxicological profiles of these sulfur compounds, combined with promising therapeutic effects, warrant continued human clinical trails.
    Sean Waters and rlee314 like this.
  2. freesia

    freesia Old Member

    Sean Waters, rlee314 and WereBear like this.
  3. chocolate

    chocolate Silver


    Functional genes as markers for sulfur cycling and CO2 fixation in microbial communities of hydrothermal vents of the Logatchev field.

    Hügler M, Gärtner A, Imhoff JF.


    Leibniz Institut für Meereswissenschaften, IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel, Germany. michael.huegler@tzw.de


    Life at deep-sea hydrothermal vents depends on chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms as primary producers mediating the transfer of energy from hydrothermal fluids to higher trophic levels. A comprehensive molecular survey was performed with microbial communities in a mussel patch at the Irina II site of the Logatchev hydrothermal field by combining the analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences with studies of functional key genes involved in biochemical pathways of sulfur oxidation-reduction (soxB, aprA) and autotrophic carbon fixation (aclB, cbbM, cbbL). Most significantly, major groups of chemoautotrophic sulfur oxidizers in the diffuse fluids differed in their biosynthetic pathways of both carbon fixation and sulfur oxidation. One important component of the community, the Epsilonproteobacteria, has the potential to grow chemoautotrophically by means of the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle and to gain energy through the oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds using the Sox pathway. The majority of soxB and all retrieved aclB gene sequences were assigned to this group. Another important group in this habitat, the Gammaproteobacteria, may use the adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate pathway and the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle, deduced from the presence of aprA and cbbM genes. Hence, two important groups of primary producers at the investigated site might use different pathways for sulfur oxidation and carbon fixation.

    I think we might be a microbial community.
    Sean Waters likes this.
  4. chocolate

    chocolate Silver

    the best article. so much to learn.

    http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2180/8/174 conclusion

    Our data indicate that the significance of the sulphate/methionine-related signal with respect to cellulase gene expression is dependent on the light status and reaches beyond detection of sulphur availability.

    this article speaks of detoxing metals as part of the cycle , it is circadian of course
    Sean Waters and rlee314 like this.
  5. Jack Kruse

    Jack Kruse Administrator

    it is a great paper......glutathione recycling uses S to work too.
    Sean Waters and rlee314 like this.
  6. Jim

    Jim New Member

    Sean Waters likes this.
  7. Jack Kruse

    Jack Kruse Administrator

    Any AI disease needs ideal glutathione processing in the liver.....has to do with IL 17 and T helper cells.....its all the gut.
  8. freesia

    freesia Old Member

    @ Dr Kruse...can not WAIT for your gut blogs !!! :D

    Dr Seneff has written other super-interesting stuff recently too Chocolate. See her home page at http://people.csail.mit.edu/seneff

    Lovely lady too.
    Sean Waters and rlee314 like this.
  9. freesia

    freesia Old Member

    I've been doing (er, struggling with) a methylation protocol since 2007. Have the feeling some Optimal could help there. :D I have Less Than Optimal snps, if you tell us we can work to overcome those I'm throwing a party!
  10. Jack Kruse

    Jack Kruse Administrator

    did not see anything about chocolate
  11. Jack Kruse

    Jack Kruse Administrator

    If you have snp issues you have to maximize intracellular glutathione recycling......its critical. liposomal glutathione and a a steep supplement regimen. Not all SNP's issues can be navigated.
    Sean Waters and rlee314 like this.
  12. freesia

    freesia Old Member

    LOL, no that bit of my post was to member "chocolate".

    Thx for the note re SNPs. Doing Lipo Glutathione and will keep on with it.
  13. Jack Kruse

    Jack Kruse Administrator

    The following list is a list of supplements that all are helpful in anyone with a leaky gut because they help modulate the immune response. All have affects on the cytokine storms and the proteins they induce in some fashion.

    Adenosine- I have talked about this being the gateway to sleep in many blogs. CT 7 recently

    Huperzine A


    Alpha Glycerylphosphorylcholine (Alpha GPC)

    Xanthinol niacinate

    Brent Patrick and rlee314 like this.
  14. quelsen

    quelsen New Member

    All cells require





    we humans dont like the smell of sulfur so we removed it.

    again Man is the only creature intelligent enough to think herself to death
    Dean6789 and rlee314 like this.
  15. chocolate

    chocolate Silver

    I'm something of a Montessori cultist. She believed in routine (order and normalizaton) and lots of nitrogen. Its neat you mentioned that. It seems like olive oil was her source.... I'm am going to look into that too. I chugged some d yesterday and the body responds very quickly, in the best way. 10-q Quelson! I think it is so amazing that you were able to get a grasp on your nutritional challenges, especially in the manner they presented themselves. Kind of like reading War and Peace while you kick at sharks.

    The olive oil wasn't the nitrogen source. I'll have to dig out my books and see what she thought was good. The olive oil was on her food list also. I just remember a focus on nitrogen.

    http://www.albany.edu/faculty/cs812/bio366/selenocysteine_ppt.pdf Seleno Cysteine, the 21 amino


    Protein Chemistry of Sulfur and Selenium
  16. nonchalant

    nonchalant Silver

    This reminds me! I need to sprinkle some sulfur granules on the lawn. Then the chicken's eggs will end up with more sulfur.

    Besides, it's great for repelling chiggers and fleas. :)
  17. chocolate

    chocolate Silver

    Sulfur eating bacteria


    (PhysOrg.com) -- Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) is caused when sulphur in mine tailings reacts with water and oxygen in the environment to produce sulphuric acid. It is a major environmental issue, with AMD a concern for lake acidification and water quality. AMD is also implicated as a climate change culprit - the sulphuric acid dissolves carbonate minerals in the underlying rock, liberating carbon dioxide in a process known as acid rock weathering.
  18. chocolate

    chocolate Silver

    http://www.healthhype.com/fructose-malabsorption-cause-symptoms-and-diagnosis.html fructose somehow shuts down glutathione, its an either/or I guess.... of course, that just MY opinion

    Laboratory Findings in FM

    Fructose malabsorption was found to be correlated with low levels of folic acid in blood plasma in some cases, supposedly due to reduced amount of intestinal bacteria that produce folic acid (3). Plasma levels of zinc, iron, calcium, vitamin C and E, triptophane and glutathione may also be lowered, and amylase, lipase and triglicerides may be elevated (4,7). ‘Fructose deficiency’, on the other hand, does n0t exist, since fructose is not an essential nutrient in a human.


    Symptoms of SIBO

    Symptoms of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth may include:

    Early satiety (feeling full after only “few bites”), bloating and nausea, which forces many patients to avoid food, resulting in weight loss.

    Sulphur burps

    Some patients with SIBO crave sugar.

    Chronic diarrhea - may appear weeks or even years after the causing event, like surgery (1).

    Whitish, floating, foamy and sticky stool due to unabsorbed fats.

    Muscle weakness and bone pains due to vitamin D deficiency.

    Anemia with pale skin, weakness or tingling due to vitamin B12 deficiency.

    Impaired night vision due to vitamin A deficiency.
  19. chocolate

    chocolate Silver



    Sulfur occurs principally in the body as a constituent of the cysteine and methionine. As a constituent of these amino acids it plays an important role in the structural conformation of almost all proteins and enzymes found in the body.

    Sulfur is also important in the structure of antibodies, and the sulfide group of cysteine is important in the activity of various enzymes. The disulfide linkage, which is formed between two cysteine residues, tends to bind up adjacent parallel peptide chains, thereby adding to the structural rigidity of many proteins.

    Sulfur is an important constituent of thiamine (vitamin B-1) and biotin, and is found in insulin, keratin, and various glycoproteins. It is important in the molecule chondroitin sulfate in bone and cartilage.

    Method of Action

    Sulfur in the body exists primarily as a constituent of cysteine and methionine, although it also exists in smaller amounts in various inorganic sulfate compounds.

    Sulfate, which contains sulfur, is an important constituent of the compound serotonin; serotonin acts as a vasoconstrictor and aids in blood coagulation.

    Disulfide bridges, or sulfur to sulfur bonding of two cysteine residues, function to link together the various peptide constituents of all immunoglobulin molecules. Disulfide bridges also aid in the maintenance of structural rigidity in keratin protein. Keratin is composed of many peptide chains, which are linked together by hydrogen and disulfide bonds. Skin is made of a "softer" keratin which contains less disulfide bonds and therefore, less structural rigidity. "Hard" keratin, as is found in hair and nails, has a greater amount of structural rigidity.

    Disulfide bonds are essential in maintaining the three dimensional structures of proteins and enzymes. Enzymatic activity, in many enzymes, depends upon the protein structure. For example, pancreatic ribonuclease has four disulfide bonds within its protein structure and does not function efficiently in the absence of malformation of these bonds.

    Sulfur is a constituent of the molecule coenzyme A (CoA), which is involved in a wide variety of metabolic reactions. CoA plays a role in glycolysis, metabolism of fatty acids, degradation of various amino acids, and the formation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, as well as numerous other metabolic processes.

    Return to top

    Properties and Uses

    Sulfur-containing drugs have been used in a wide variety of clinical treatments. Among these are the sulfonylureas, which enhance glucose utilization in diabetic patients; sulfonamides, used in combatting infection; salicylazosulfapyradine, and anti-inflammatory agent; sulfisoxazole, and antibiotic; sulfinpyrazone, which helps treat chronic gout and recurrent heart attacks
    ; and sulfasalazine, which is used in the treatment of ulcers.

    Consequences of Deficiency

    Cysteine renal calculi arise from a hereditary defect in renal tubular resorption of cysteine, which results in cystinuria (an abnormally high urinary excretion of cysteine) and production of cysteine crystal kidney stones. It should be noted that adequate protein intake almost always assures adequate organic sulfur intake.

    Toxicity Levels

    Ingestion of organically-complexed sulfur (e.g., in amino acids) in excess has not been shown to be toxic.
    High sulfate levels have been observed in infants fed exclusively on formulae with abnormally high cysteine and methionine contents.

    Recommended Dietary Allowances

    There has been no RDA established for sulfur. It is assumed that an individual takes in sufficient amounts of sulfur when the protein intake is adequate.

    The major food sources are proteins containing methionine and cysteine. The body synthesizes cysteine from its precursor methionine.

    It's hard to believe li'l ol' fructose can stop all of this.
    rlee314 likes this.
  20. chocolate

    chocolate Silver



    Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 6, 345-351 (April 2005) | doi:10.1038/nrm1620

    Iron–sulphur cluster biogenesis and mitochondrial iron homeostasis

    Tracey A. Rouault & Wing-Hang Tong


    Iron–sulphur clusters are important cofactors for proteins that are involved in many cellular processes, including electron transport, enzymatic catalysis and regulation. The enzymes that catalyse the formation of iron–sulphur clusters are widely conserved from bacteria to humans. Recent studies in model systems and humans reveal that iron–sulphur proteins have important roles in mitochondrial iron homeostasis and in the pathogenesis of the human disease Friedreich ataxia.

Share This Page