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One of the Best Journal Articles Ever

Discussion in 'Mitochondrial Rx' started by DrEttinger, Jan 19, 2019.

  1. Dan2

    Dan2 New Member


    "To quantify the effects of ionizing radiation and other forms of electromagnetic radiation on the electron transfer properties of melanin – we irradiated dry C. neoformans melanin for 20 and 40 min with 14 Gy/min from a 137Cs source and measured its electron transfer properties in the coupled oxidation of NADH and reduction of ferricyanide. In this system, melanin acts as an electron-transfer agent [27], however, the effects of electromagnetic radiation on melanin electron-transfer properties are unknown. Irradiation of melanin for 20 min increased the velocity of the NADH/ferricyanide coupled reaction 3-fold in comparison to that measured for non-irradiated melanin, while 40 min irradiation had an even larger effect, causing a 4-fold increase in velocity (Table 1). When we investigated the influence of other, non-ionizing forms of radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum - heat (infrared radiation), visible light and UV light on the electron-transfer properties of melanin in NADH/ferricyanide coupled reaction – we found that each of these types of radiation increased the ability of melanin to transfer electrons (Table 2). Interestingly, the increase in the electron-transfer properties of melanin was independent of the energy of the incident photons (Table 2)."
    The number of electrons per gram is an important contributor to the attenuation properties of a material at the energy levels where the Compton effect predominates [32]. Compton scattering predominates for chemical elements with low atomic numbers such as C, N, O and S [32], which constitute melanin. In Compton scattering, transfer of a photon energy to matter occurs via a cascade of interactions, where the energy of the incident photon is transferred to high-energy electrons, and to secondary photons of progressively lower energy until the photoelectric effect takes place. Thus, the existence of structures composed of electron-rich covalently linked aromatic motifs could explain radiation scattering properties of melanins. Furthermore, the higher number of electrons in oligomers of pheomelanin relative to eumelanin – 388 versus 287 – could result in better scattering properties of pheomelanin.

    The high-energy electrons generated by Compton scattering are ultimately responsible for the radiobiologic effects caused by gamma radiation by either direct interaction with DNA or through radiolysis of water in the cells, a process that results in the formation of reactive short-lived free radicals capable of damaging DNA. Stable free radicals in melanin may interact with these high-energy electrons and prevent them from entering a cell, thus enabling melanin to function as a radioprotector. The Compton electrons may then undergo secondary interactions with melanin molecules with their energy gradually lowered by melanin.
    Melanins are unique biopolymers that protect living organisms against UV and ionizing radiation and extreme temperatures. The electronic complexity of melanins allows them to scatter/trap photons and electrons, which was evidenced in this study by the following observations: 1) changes the electronic structure of melanin post radiation exposure as measured by amplitude changes in the ESR signal; 2) electron transfer properties of melanin in the NADH oxidation/reduction reaction increased 4-fold after melanin irradiation.


    "The mechanism of melanin radioprotection involves quenching of ROS generated by the radiolysis of water and a physical shielding effect whereby high-energy electrons get trapped within the melanin structure, gradually losing energy while preventing harmful secondary ionizations typical of metal shields 12,13]. One shielding assay showed that an isolated fungal melanin suspension could shield X- ray radiation solid lead and twice that of charcoal [12]. Administration of black at a level just below mushrooms, fungal and synthetic melanin preparations have been proven to be successful in protecting mammalian systems against gamma and X-rays [14␣17]. These studies already demonstrate that melanin could be useful in protecting humans against the high-energy waves in space.
    Melanins, both natural and synthetic, can be produced easily and at low costs from relatively simple precursors, presenting an opportunity for in situ and large-scale production. Since mushrooms can grow in space [24], melanin overproducing strains could be engineered and grow from organic waste with the possibility of more growth as a result of ionizing radiation [18]. The observed melanin radioprotection extends beyond in vivo applications. Melanin is a bioconductor and it can respond to ionizing radiation by changing its electrical properties [18,25]. This phenomenon may also permit us to harness some electrical power from ionizing radiation especially in deep space areas deprived of solar rays."


    'The brain produces imagery through the transduction of energy. Transduction of energy is when energy is translated from one form into another, ordinarily without loss of energy or light waves are produced in the brain - through a fascinating molecule called melanin. If you pump sound waves through melanin it can produce light waves on the other side. Electrochemical waves pumped into melanin will produce light waves on the other side...producing light waves or photons is just one of its many functions. Another is to translate all conscious process into awareness.'
    Melanin has potential to transform solar energy, electromagnetic energy, electricity, microwaves, music sound waves, radio/TV waves, thermal waves, x-rays, cosmic rays and UV light into kinetic energy. [?]
    '...a measure of melanin formation by human brain in vitro is described. The assay
    was validated by comparison with various criteria of melanin formation...Catecholamines, DOPA and 5HT were precursors for brain melanin formation. Melanin formation was detected in all brain regions studied and was highest in substantia nigra and striatum. The assay was used to evaluate various hypotheses of brain melanin formation. No evidence for enzymic activity was found and it is concluded that brain melanin formation may be a largely non-enzymic process.'
    'The melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) system is thought to be an important regulator of food intake. Recently the orphan G protein-coupled receptor SLC-1 was identified as the MCH receptor (MCHR). Preliminary analyses of MCHR mRNA distribution have supported a role for the MCH system in nutritional homeostasis...the extensive MCHR distribution throughout the brain suggests that this receptor may play a role in other functions, most notably reinforcement, arousal, sensorimotor integration, and autonomic control.'
    'We conclude that MCH1R [melanin-concentrating hormone 1 receptor] is a physiologically relevant MCH [melanin-concentrating hormone] receptor in mice that plays a role in energy homeostasis through multiple actions on locomotor activity, metabolism, appetite, and neuroendocrine function.'

    "A review of the genetics and biochemistry of human pigmentation shows that all humans have sim- ilar amounts of neuromelanin (brain melanin), and that its concentration is absolutely independent of skin color; that adult humans do not synthesize P-MSH [melanocyte-stimulating hormone]...
    'coupling of phonons (vibrational modes of the macromolecular structure) to electronic states may be particularly efficient in melanin and the conversion between vibrational modes and electronically-excited states might proceed in both directions.' (Lowry, 1984).
    There is a need to distinguish between skin melanin and melanin in the brain, neuromelanin. ... As shown below, they have different structures, are made by different bio-chemical pathways...
    'The genesis of neuromelanin bears no similarity to the development of the melanosomes within the melanocytes. Its concentration in the brain is proportional to the age of the individual, and is totally independent of ethnic pigmentation' (Robins,1991:81).
    The melanin in the eyes and ears is synthesized by the same mechanism as skin melanin and the amounts do correlate with skin color. Eye color does seem to influence reaction times. Worthy (1974) found that dark-eyed individuals per- formed better a t “reactive activities,” whereas light-eyed people were superior a t “self-paced” activities. Several studies (Hale, et al. 1980; Landers et al., 1976; Tedford et al., 1978)showed that there was a correlation between dark eyes and faster reaction times in response to both visual and auditory stimuli, but none of the investigators were able to offer a satisfactory explanation for their findings (Robins,1991).
    Racial skin color differences are not due to differences in the number of melano- cytes, but to the amount and density of melanin manufactured within them (Rob- ins, 1991).
    Melanogenesis, the synthesis of melanin within the melanosome, is controlled by a copper-containing enzyme, tyrosinase....Our discussion will focus on eumelanin, which is the key pigment in skin. For our purposes, what is important is that eumelanin is made from tyrosine (I)in a series of steps of which the dominant rate-controlling steps involve the enzyme tyrosinase.3
    Neuromelanin differs from oculocutaneous eumelanin in a number of significant ways. Neuromelanin is not produced by melanocytes. It is found in a column cathecolamine neurons along the brain stem, but is concentrated in two main areas, the substantia nigra in the midbrain and the locus coeruleus in the pons (Robins, 1991). Cathecolamine neurons are cells that contain the neurotransmit- ters noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and serotonin. Neuromelanin is found in nearly all mammalian species but is more abundant in primates, reaching a max- imum in humans (Marsden, 1961). Neuromelanin is synthesized in these neurons by a biochemical pathway completely different from that in the skin (Fig. 6) (Gra- ham, 1979).Cathecolamine neurons do not contain any tyrosinase. In these neurons tyrosine (I) is oxidized to DOPA (11)by a different enzyme, tyrosine hydrox- ylase, which does not occur in melanosomes, but is found in albinos. The important compound synthesized in these neurons from tyrosine (I) is adrenaline (epineph- rine, IX).4 In these neurons neuromelanin is only a by-product of the synthesis of adrenalin.5 Neuromelanin production will continue in brain tissue even after all the enzymes are inactivated by heat, which proves that the process is an auto- oxidation, as outlined in Figure 6 (Rodgersand Curzon, 1975).
    The concentration of neuromelanin in neurons increases linearly up to age 60, which is consistent with its being a waste product of cathecolamine metabolism in neurons that synthesize these neurotransmitters (Graham, 1979; Robins, 1991). Mann and Yates (1974)argue that this linear relationship between neuromelanin and age also suggests that neuromelanin is a by-product or waste product of cell metabolism rather than a metabolic precursor, or has a specialized function within the cell. Thus, the higher density of this pigment in humans compared to other primates may be no more than a reflection of the longer life span of humans. Robins (1991:81)clearly differentiates neuromelanin from skin eumelanin: “The genesis of neuromelanin bears no similarity to the development of melanosomes within melanocytes. Its concentration in the brain is proportional to the age of the individual, and is totally independent of ethnic pigmentation.” Albinos have as much neuromelanin as any other human and in fact an old albino will have more neuromelanin than a young black African. Neuromelanin also differs in structure from eumelanin. Human neuromelanin has been shown to contain lipid globules, probably the age-related lipofuscin,by electron microscopy.Neuromelanin consists of a core of lipofuscin upon which melanin substances are deposited (Marsden, 1983).
    Welsing (1987, 1991b) has also claimed that George Washington Carver’s success at discovering the constituents of plants was attributable to his melanin.
    'I further indicated that it was probably possible for melanin pigment to pick up and decode cosmic rays. I’d liken the role of black pigment melanin to the function of the green pigment chlorophyllin plants ...special abilities of Dr. George Washington Carver, a very very black-skinned man, referred to as the wizard of Tuskegee. . . .He once said, “All flowers talk to me, and so do hundreds of little things in the woods. ...‘Howwas Dr. George Washington Carver able to do what he did? . . . He did it through his very very black color and the necessary levels of melanin pigment in his internal nervous system. He used or was able to use his black melanin pigment to decode the energy emanations from plants. Thus, they did talk to him.' (Welsing, 1987).
    There is no correlation between skin pigmentation and neuromelanin. There is no reason to believe that Carver had any more neuromelanin than any white or black man his age. There is no scientific evidence for the existence of extra sensory perception or for communication between plants and people (Hines, 1988)."
  2. Dan2

    Dan2 New Member

    Interactions of melanin and cosmic rays including gamma rays ... melanin will have an important role in the interaction with 5G signals since those will be in the gamma range? I know that's stupidly simple compared to other people's understanding of that here. But do the studies and discussion in this thread change the ideas about 5G interactions?
  3. Sue-UK

    Sue-UK Gold

    Perhaps there's some theoretical way of calculating it, but I'm not sure that in natural conditions it would be easy to assign a number of kilowatt hours to melanin because the environmental conditions are constantly changing, and melanin involves more than just visible, UV and IR light. Melanin's activity and water splitting capability increase in strong sunlight, and diminish in darkness. IIRC Dr Herrera said in an interview that melatonin is a natural inhibitor of human photosynthesis.

    If biomass is considered as a form of stored sunlight, how much biomass (calories) we need to eat (or eat to convert to fat) to maintain our own biomass, cover overnight or seasonal temperature variations and food scarcity etc depends on a lot of variables. But real time solar energy (or lack of it) seems to be related to energy as much as information.

    Only had a quick skim of this but will get round to printing it out ….

  4. JanSz

    JanSz Gold

    But real time solar energy (or lack of it) seems to be related to energy as much as information.
    No need for all the digits. Estimates should be sufficient.
    in those estimates, I already have a big issue.
    You and everybody else write in such a way as
    solar energy and solar information are on equal footing.

    I am saying that (real-time solar energy) is minuscule and likely unimportant, especially when compared to the big guys.
    The big guy is energy released in water synthesis and now maybe even bigger, melanin.

    Real-time solar energy is getting too much respect.
    That is at the cost of other parts that are not appreciated sufficiently.
    And that is not food.

    Bob Stirling likes this.
  5. Sue-UK

    Sue-UK Gold

    I'm still trying to get my head around it :confused: but my initial thoughts are that Herrera's "recipe" is based on the abundance in the universe, Light-Melanin-water. A human photosynthetic three legged stool? :D Without light, I don't see how there can be a "big guy" of energy released in water synthesis via melanin. Herrera seems to be saying that melanin is the transducer that transforms our sun generated electromagnetic radiations, making hydrogen and oxygen available from the splitting of water, and the reforming of the water provides water, electricity and controls oxygen, which can be toxic.

    In terms of "real time" solar energy, theoretically you could use an artificial light source/melanin/water set up, but it could be "same" (or wrong) in terms of information. Whether its time for melatonin to rise, to sleep, time to wake up, breed, time to upregulate or downregulate something ….. nothing beats the sun (or the information an organism acts upon from the lack of it).
    Michalis likes this.
  6. Sue-UK

    Sue-UK Gold

    From around 50.30 of this is a section on melanin/chaga and the changes to the environment

    At around 54.16 he shows a slide about a study showing gamma ray irradiation protected mice living 305 days as compared to unprotected mice 186 days. I've seen different figures for the lifespan of pet mice, and I haven't seen the study to see if it was one zapping or chronic low grade irradiation, but whether its just about taking longer to die rather than being truly protective, for mitigation of what can't be avoided/ getting ready to move away/whatever, it could be a idea worth exploring.
    JanSz likes this.
  7. JanSz

    JanSz Gold

    JanSz said:
    You and everybody else write in such a way as
    solar energy and solar information are on equal footing.

    You have just proved that sunlight contains information.

    But we both are
    trying to get our heads around it
    About three-legged stool.
    Sounds nice and looks appealing on a calling card.
    its meaning can be twisted and turned and expanding every day in different ways.

  8. JanSz

    JanSz Gold

    Have you figured out how to use chaga?
    I have this one.
    Currently, use one teaspoon a day.

  9. Sue-UK

    Sue-UK Gold

    I've been using it for a couple of weeks now, started with half a teaspoon split over two doses, now on 1 teaspoon split over 2 doses, made into a tea. I don't think that's the optimum way for me to use it for my n=1, but I'm still working on that. I'm about to order another brand that is wildcrafted from Siberia and will switch the one I've got to external use. Reverse polar bear hack. :rofl:
    Anne V likes this.
  10. JanSz

    JanSz Gold

    Siberian Chaga (on the picture below).
    I have a tree in my neighborhood, looks similar. Rather large as for a mushroom.
    I found it when my daughter phoned me to look for a black bear that she spotted.
    Wonder if I could do something with it, it is rather high up.

    Sue-UK likes this.
  11. JanSz

    JanSz Gold

    Reminds me of combination
    Sayan Siberian Chaga Mushroom Extract with Shilajit


    I was using this Mumje
    Sue-UK likes this.
  12. Sue-UK

    Sue-UK Gold

    Interesting. :) I'm going to continue using the chaga powder as in the study of chaga suppressing cancer progression and maintaining body temperature in mice, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4946216/ the dosage was 6mg/kg/day, but it was given in drinking water. So presumably there were several trips to drink the water, which may have contributed to the better temperature control throughout the wake period, rather than a quick boost from a single or even double dose. Also the Herrera treatment of AD with his melanin precursor drops puts the drops under the tongue every two hours during the day (one case was every hour). I've made up a whole day dose of tea this morning (using silica rich water) that I've let go cold and I'm going to take some every couple of hours, either as is if I'm not thirsty or chase it down with water if I am. I'm living in the winter cold lane (no heating) so I'll see if it helps me maintain body temperature, or cuts my appetite. :)
    JanSz likes this.
  13. Sue-UK

    Sue-UK Gold



    I checked out the list of elements in products like Concentrace and Spectramin, against his list

    "ions, metals (gadolinium, iron, aluminum, gold, silver, nickel, copper, erbium, europium, praseodymium, dysprosium, holmium, chromium or manganese, lead selenide, titanium, various alloys and special, that is to say any metal or compound known or unknown to date; etc). Gadolinium is a very effective metal. The metal is incorporated into the melanins in ionic form or as a particle both in vivo and in vitro, in addition to drugs or drugs, energizing the photoelectrochemical design with electromagnetic radiation, light (natural or synthetic, coherent or not, monochromatic or polychromatic) with Wavelength mainly between 200 and 900 nanometers, although other wavelengths and other types of energy, for example kinetics, are also effective although in varying degrees, according to the rest of the conditions (pH, temperature, pressure; combination, doping ; etc)."

    I'd only read about gadolinium in relation to MRIs, but although a lot on his list are in the ionic minerals, I was interested in why Herrera mentioned gadolinium specifically, how it relates to AD, and have found this https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.chemmater.8b04333 Gadolinium Doping Enhances the Photoacoustic Signal of Synthetic Melanin Nanoparticles: A Dual Modality Contrast Agent for Stem Cell Imaging.

    "In this paper, we show that gadolinium-loaded synthetic melanin nanoparticles (Gd(III)-SMNPs) exhibit up to a 40-fold enhanced photoacoustic signal intensity relative to synthetic melanin alone and higher than other metal-chelated SMNPs."


    I've changed how I'm using chaga - as ionic minerals include gadolinium, however trace the amount, I've added them to the cold tea mix. :)
    JanSz likes this.

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