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Methylene blue can restore short term redox power when TCA cycling is poor

Discussion in 'Redox Rx' started by Jack Kruse, Sep 13, 2022.

  1. Jack Kruse

    Jack Kruse Administrator

    Methylene blue (MB), a positively charged heterocyclic aromatic thiazine dye, has long been used as staining agent in industry. In reducing environment, methylene blue can be reduced to colorless leuco-methylene blue (LMB) through hydrogenation reaction, which can switch back to initial blue color by oxidative dehydrogenation upon exposure to oxidizing environment. MB is an optical switch that tells us about the presence or absence of electrons in a system. Without electrons in a system, light becomes impotent to change the charge density of biomolecules in cells. Light can only do this because of its photoelectric effect. MB can mimic oxygen in defective mitochondria without creating ROS. How? Low-dose methylene blue stimulates mitochondrial respiration by donating and cycling electrons inside the mitochondrial matrix to facilitate the feeding of electrons through electron transport chain. Low-dose methylene blue (MB) acts as an "exogenous" electron (e-) cycler, capable of boosting oxygen consumption and cell respiration (molecular O2 reduced to H2O ). Any rapid activation of oxygen consumption inside of the matrix leads to a local transient hypoxia (NAD+ drops), causing cytochrome C oxidase to change from reducing oxygen with electrons to catalyzing the formation of nitric oxide. NO disrupts and lowers ECT flow. Red light can counterbalance NO release by near-infrared light (600-1000nm). These photons directly energizes cytochrome oxidase (Complex IV) via photon absorption, facilitating its catalytic activity and leading to up-regulation of cytochrome oxidase levels. People seem to forget that cytochrome c oxidase contains 4 red light chromophores in the IR-A range. The sun is loaded with this frequency of light because it comes from the atomic spectrum of hydrogen. In fact, it is the most abundant light in terrestrial sunlight. If the decentralized MD understands this quantum dance, these clinical interventions can result in long-term increases in the amount of cytochrome oxidase in the electron transport chain by a process of enzymatic induction, which promotes oxidative energy metabolism and cellular survival in poorly functioning mitochondria incapable of creating water, NAD+, or CO2. This is why MB and IR-A light work so well in our cells when the geometry of the TCA intermediates cannot cycle due to heavier isotopes of hydrogen acting like concrete in a piston. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4428125/
     
  2. Methylthioninium Chloride (MTC) (also known as Methylene Blue), was first described in a German Patent in 1877 (Ba dische Anilin-und Soda-Fabrik, 1877). In that patent, MTC was synthesized by nitrosylation of dimethylaniline, Subse quent reduction to form N,N-dimethyl-1,4-diaminobenzene, and Subsequent oxidative coupling in the presence of hydro gen sulphide (HS) and iron(III) chloride (FeCl). Bernthsen described subsequent studies of MTC and meth ods for its synthesis (see Bernthsen, 1885a, 1885b, 1889). Fierz-David and Blangley, 1949, also describes methods for the synthesis of MTC from dimethylaniline, as illustrated in the following scheme:

    upload_2022-9-17_11-11-26.png

    Methylene blue (MB) is a well-established drug, originally synthesized as a textile dye in 1876. The small molecular weight allows MB to be delivered into tissues fast. Methylene blue can be reduced into leucomethylene blue (leucoMB), and therefore, it can be used as an antioxidant. Methylene blue is an FDA-approved medicine.

    upload_2022-9-17_11-11-55.png


    Methylene blue is a phenothiazine derivative and can be reduced into leucoMB (Figure 1A above).
    • In its oxidized state, Methylene blue solution is blue, while leucoMB is colorless.
    • Methylene blue is not water-soluble. Methylene blue is hydrophilic and lipophilic, which makes it highly permeable through biomembranes.
    • Methylene blue is positively charged.
    • The redox potential of methylene blue is 11 mV, and it can cycle readily between oxidized and reduced forms in mitochondria because of its low redox potential.
    • Such characteristics allow methylene blue to work as a catalytic redox cycler in mitochondria, promoting cytochrome oxidase activity and ATP production (Figure 1 above).
    • Methylene blue also decreases the production of ROS via bypassing Complex I/III activity.
    • Methylene blue receives electrons from NADH through Complex I, converting to leucoMB. LeucoMB can directly transfer these electrons to cytochrome c, re-oxidized to Methylene blue.
    • Therefore, Methylene blue has the potential to protect cells against oxidative stress under pathological conditions.
    Methylene blue has been widely used in surgical staining, malaria, and methemoglobinemia. Since, methylene blue is highly lipophilic and able to effectively cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Methylene blue, acting as an electron donor, can also increase the expression of brain cytochrome oxidase and oxygen consumption. Methylene blue was reported to prevent Aβ and tau aggregation or dissolve existing aggregates via autophagic clearance, and therefore alleviate downstream pathological consequences. Methylene blue could directly or indirectly target β-secretase cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and regulate the generation of Aβ. Methylene blue’s role in Aβ and tau aggregation clearance may help improve mitochondrial functions in AD neurons and thus contribute to AD treatment. Besides, cytochrome oxidase activity has been shown to decline in AD, while methylene blue can increase the enzymatic activity of cytochrome oxidase, which results in an increased oxidative metabolic capacity of neurons.​

    Methylene blue, when combined with light, can prevent the replication of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA). Plasma, platelets and red blood cells do not contain nuclear DNA or RNA. When methylene blue is introduced into the blood components, it crosses bacterial cell walls or viral membrane then moves into the interior of the nucleic acid structure. When activated with light, the compounds then bind to the nucleic acid of the viral or bacterial pathogen, preventing replication of the DNA or RNA. Because MTC designed to inactivate pathogens, it has the potential to reduce the risk of transmissions of pathogens that would remain undetected by testing.​

    upload_2022-9-17_11-13-4.png

    Oral and parenteral formulations of Methylene blue are commercially available in the United States, usually under the name Urolene Blue R.

    Patents:
    Since its beginning, Methylene Blue has multiple molecular derivatives patented.
    Example:

    Dr. @Jack Kruse has reference methylene blue throughout his blogs with “TIME #14: BIOHACKING “TIME” WITH METHYLENE BLUE“ as being the most extensive

    A dosage review for Methylene Blue

    Please note with these dosages – no where does it mention a daily use beyond 3 days.

    As always, please consider making a consultation appointment with Dr. @Jack Kruse for dosage recommendations for treatments of your specific issues.
     
    Last edited: Sep 17, 2022
  3. JanSz

    JanSz Gold

    MB and IR-A light work so well
    ----
    On a sunny day, naked people when exposed to full sunlight, eventually are looking for shade (say under a tree).
    That shade blocks UV and some visible frequencies but IR-A is basically staying intact.
    I am assuming that a person using MB and looking for IR-A
    is better off even under shaded sunlight
    when compared to the best red light.

    Am I correct in that assumption?


    upload_2022-9-17_14-48-32.png
     
  4. JanSz

    JanSz Gold

    Thank you JS
    @John Schumacher

    From the above reference:
    Dosage
    Methylene blue is used as a single dose of 1.5 -2 mg /kg IV over 20 min to 1hr for rescue treatment.
    Methylene blue is a safe drug when used in therapeutic doses (<2mg/kg).
    70kg person ------>> <140mg IV

    The dose discussed in the above reference is intravascular over time up to one hr.

    On this board, discussions were about
    drinking
    about 1-2 ml of 10mg/mL MB

    I am using daily one dropper-full (likely about 1cc of 10mg/mL MB)
    ======================

    There is a possibility that utilization of MB may be best left to people who are in the active dying process.
    If so, the last thing on their mind maybe the necessity of good sunlight exposure.'

    ............
     
    Last edited: Sep 17, 2022
    John Schumacher likes this.
  5. The splendors of lying Naked in the sun ->

    that's how I do my book studies - chemistry, human cellular biology, genetics, etc.​

    In the summer heat (normally 100+, no clouds), I will run some cold water over my body and a regular bases. Out in our sun from 7am to 4pm.
    What's interesting to me is my testosterone during summer is still just about 900.

    upload_2022-9-17_15-27-36.png

    upload_2022-9-17_16-17-20.png
    From the "The Encyclopedia of Health and Physical Culture" published in 1931 by Bernarr MacFadden page 2320
     
    Last edited: Sep 17, 2022
    JanSz likes this.

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