1. Registering for the Forum

    We require a human profile pic upon registration on this forum.

    After registration is submitted, you will receive a confirmation email, which should contain a link to confirm your intent to register for the forum. At this point, you will not yet be registered on the forum.

    Our Support staff will manually approve your account within 24 hours, and you will get a notification. This is to prevent the many spam account signups which we receive on a daily basis.

    If you have any problems completing this registration, please email support@jackkruse.com and we will assist you.

Low Cortisol Levels

Discussion in 'Optimal Labs' started by Eddie Garza, Apr 29, 2015.

  1. JanSz

    JanSz Gold

    [​IMG]
     

    Attached Files:

  2. JanSz

    JanSz Gold

    [ quote="Jack Kruse, post: 204707, member: 1031"]So members you thought that epic April 2016 webinar on the end game of mitochondria was intense? Well this relaity might be more ground breaking to you: Now we have others going down the same path as I did ten years ago when I came up my my thesis that a mitochodria is capable of nuclear reactions using neutrinos. If I am correct in my speculation based upon my data collection and research we should find proof that elements below atomic number 26 can under go transmutation in cells (because of what occurs in mito) obviating the need for many raw materials of atoms for key enzymes and proteins from food. This means what is today believed to be essential no longer is. In other words: sunlight can be turned directly into matter based upon what the cell needs when it needs it. Lavoisier has established a mass conservation law which is valid in chemistry. Now we know that it is NOT true when nuclear reactions are involved. The review of more than two centuries of research demonstrates that this is not true in biology. It appears that all living organisms can under some circumstances produce nuclear reactions. However, there is an important need of finding an adequate theory to explain these results. It is highly probable that such a theory should also be capable of explaining Cold Fusion, or more generally, nuclear reactions in condensed matter. Another point is the irreproducibility of some experiments. Probably, in order to produce significant transmutation of an element, it is necessary that another element be missing. It seems that nature has a tendency to find ways to transmute an element into another to provide the necessary ingredients for the healthy growth of the four kingdoms of bacteria, fungi, plants and animals, including human beings. http://www.e-catworld.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/JCMNS-Biberian.pdf
    It appears this picture needs to be updated for mitochondria now.


    [​IMG][/quote]

    ------

    http://www.e-catworld.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/JCMNS-Biberian.pdf

    In this review paper, it is shown that in biological systems, chemical elements can be transmuted into other elements.
     
  3. JanSz

    JanSz Gold

  4. JanSz

    JanSz Gold

    you can choose to get offended or choose to get better----it is a choice.

    [​IMG]
     
    Last edited: Dec 3, 2016
  5. JanSz

    JanSz Gold

    https://www.facebook.com/drjackkruse/posts/1575938279137187?comment_id=1576617012402647&reply_comment_id=1576665865731095&comment_tracking={"tn":"R"}

    http://www.neurology.org/content/early/2016/11/30/WNL.0000000000003454.short

    Results: We observed that lower levels of 25(OH)D in neonates were associated with an increased risk of MS. In the analysis by quintiles, MS risk was highest among individuals in the bottom quintile (<20.7 nmol/L) and lowest among those in the top quintile of 25(OH)D (≥48.9 nmol/L), with an OR for top vs bottom of 0.53 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.36–0.78). In the analysis treating 25(OH)D as a continuous variable, a 25 nmol/L increase in neonatal 25(OH)D resulted in a 30% reduced risk of MS (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.57–0.84).

    Conclusion: Low concentrations of neonatal vitamin D are associated with an increased risk of MS. In light of the high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency among pregnant women, our observation may have importance for public health.


    [​IMG]
     
  6. JanSz

    JanSz Gold

    Dr. Jack Kruse When you have a disease like MS
    you need to refill the system with light and we
    have several pathways built into our biology to do so.
    [​IMG]

    Latitude counts! Below the 37th parallel MS risk drops dramatically......so do most circadian diseases.

    --
    .
     
    Last edited: Dec 3, 2016
  7. JanSz

    JanSz Gold

    http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/thermo/bioentropy.html#c1


    Second Law of Thermodynamics
    The second law of thermodynamics is a general principle which places constraints upon the direction of heat transfer and the attainable efficiencies of heat engines. In so doing, it goes beyond the limitations imposed by the first law of thermodynamics. It's implications may be visualized in terms of the waterfall analogy.

    Second Law
    statements
    Heat engine
    Refrigerator
    Entropy
    Heat transfer
    [​IMG]
    The maximum efficiency which can be achieved is the Carnot efficiency.

    Qualitative statements of the Second Law of Thermodynamics Index

    Second law concepts

    Heat engine concepts

    HyperPhysics***** Thermodynamics R Nave Go Back





    Second Law: Heat Engines
    Second Law of Thermodynamics: It is impossible to extract an amount of heat QH from a hot reservoir and use it all to do work W . Some amount of heat QC must be exhausted to a cold reservoir. This precludes a perfect heat engine.

    This is sometimes called the "first form" of the second law, and is referred to as the Kelvin-Planck statement of the second law.

    [​IMG]
    Alternative statements: Second Law of Thermodynamics Index

    Second law concepts

    Heat engine concepts

    HyperPhysics***** Thermodynamics R Nave Go Back





    Second Law: Refrigerator
    Second Law of Thermodynamics: It is not possible for heat to flow from a colder body to a warmer body without any work having been done to accomplish this flow. Energy will not flow spontaneously from a low temperature object to a higher temperature object. This precludes a perfect refrigerator. The statements about refrigerators apply to air conditioners and heat pumps, which embody the same principles.

    This is the "second form" or Clausius statement of the second law.

    [​IMG]
    Alternative statements: Second Law of Thermodynamics Index

    Second law concepts

    Heat engine concepts

    HyperPhysics***** Thermodynamics R Nave Go Back





    Second Law: Entropy
    Second Law of Thermodynamics: In any cyclic process the entropy will either increase or remain the same.

    Entropy: a state variable whose change is defined for a reversible process at T where Q is the heat absorbed. [​IMG]
    Entropy: a measure of the amount of energy which is unavailable to do work.
    Entropy: a measure of the disorder of a system.
    Entropy: a measure of the multiplicity of a system.
    Since entropy gives information about the evolution of an isolated system with time, it is said to give us the direction of "time's arrow" . If snapshots of a system at two different times shows one state which is more disordered, then it could be implied that this state came later in time. For an isolated system, the natural course of events takes the system to a more disordered (higher entropy) state.

    Alternative statements: Second Law of Thermodynamics
    Biological systems are highly ordered; how does that square with entropy? Index

    Second law concepts

    Heat engine concepts

    Entropy concepts

    HyperPhysics***** Thermodynamics R Nave Go Back
     
  8. JanSz

    JanSz Gold

    Energy and Order in Biological Systems
    The concept of entropy and the second law of thermodynamics suggests that systems naturally progress from order to disorder. If so, how do biological systems develop and maintain such a high degree of order? Is this a violation of the second law of thermodynamics?

    [​IMG]
    Order can be produced with an expenditure of energy, and the order associated with life on the earth is produced with the aid of energy from the sun.

    [​IMG]
    For example, plants use energy from the sun in tiny energy factories called chloroplasts. Using chlorophyll in the process called photosynthesis, they convert the sun's energy into storable form in ordered sugar molecules. In this way, carbon and water in a more disordered state are combined to form the more ordered sugar molecules.

    In animal systems there are also small structures within the cells called mitochondria which use the energy stored in sugar molecules from food to form more highly ordered structures.

    A tree converts disorder to order with a little help from the Sun
    Qualitative statements of the Second Law of Thermodynamics Index

    Second law concepts

    Heat engine concepts

    HyperPhysics***** Thermodynamics R Nave Go Back
     
  9. JanSz

    JanSz Gold

    http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Biology/mitochondria.html#c1
    Mitochondria
    [​IMG]
    Mitochondrion structure
    Mitochondria are the energy factories of the cells. The energy currency for the work that animals must do is the energy-rich molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The ATP is produced in the mitochondria using energy stored in food. Just as the chloroplasts in plants act as sugar factories for the supply of ordered molecules to the plant, the mitochondria in animals and plants act to produce the ordered ATP molecules as the energy supply for the processes of life.

    A typical animal cell will have on the order of 1000 to 2000 mitochondria. So the cell will have a lot of structures that are capable of producing a high amount of available energy. This ATP production by the mitochondria is done by the process of respiration, which in essence is the use of oxygen in a process which generates energy. This is a very efficient process for using food energy to make ATP. One of the benefits of "aerobic exercise" is that it improves your body's ability to make ATP rapidly using the respiration process.

    All living cells have mitochondria. Hair cells and outer skin cells are dead cells and no longer actively producing ATP, but all cells have the same structure. Some cells have more mitochondria than others. Your fat cells have many mitochondria because they store a lot of energy. Muscle cells have many mitochondria, which allows them to respond quickly to the need for doing work. Mitochondria occupy 15 to 20 percent of mammalian liver cells according to Karp.

    Order and disorder in biological systems.
    Energy cycle in living things Index

    Second law concepts

    Reference
    Karp
    Ch 5

    HyperPhysics***** Biology R Nave Go Back
     
  10. JanSz

    JanSz Gold

    http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Biology/cell.html#c1

    The Eukaryotic Cell
    [​IMG]
    This sketch of a eukaryotic cell is modeled after illustrations in Hickman, et al. and Audesirk& Audesirk. It is intended to show the types of organelles in cells, although no single cell is expected to have all these organelles.

    Typical quoted numbers for cells in the human body are in the 10s of trillions, or in excess of 10 trillion or 1013. This on the order of a hundred times the estimated 200 billion or 2 x 1011 stars in our galaxy.

    Cell Types Index

    Cell Concepts

    Reference
    Audesirk & Audesirk
    Ch 4

    Reference
    Hickman, Roberts, Larson

    HyperPhysics***** Biology R Nave Go Back





    Types of Cells
    Living things are made up of distinct units called cells. Multicellular animals including humans are made up of complex cells with multiple internal organelles. These cells are called eukaryotic cells. Single-celled organisms like bacteria are examples of prokaryotic cells. There are other prokaryotic cells which exhibit enough differences from bacteria to be classified as a separate Domain Archaea or the Archaebacteria.

    [​IMG]
    All cells have genes, organelles, a cell membrane, and cytoplasm.
    Index

    Cell Concepts

    Reference
    Enger & Ross

    Audesirk & Audesirk
    Ch 1

    HyperPhysics***** Biology R Nave Go Back










    Eukaryotic Cells
    Most of the life that is visible to the naked eye is made up of eukaryotic cells. These cells are characterized by a membrane-bound nucleus, and many eukaryotic cells have multiple membrane-bound organelles to carry out specific cell tasks. Eukaryotic cellular life is broken up into four kingdoms: protista, fungi, plants and animals.

    Comparison of Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic CellsCell Types Index

    Cell Concepts

    Reference
    Audesirk & Audesirk
    Ch 4

    Reference
    Hickman, Roberts, Larson

    HyperPhysics***** Biology R Nave Go Back
     
  11. JanSz

    JanSz Gold

    Mitochondrion Structure
    [​IMG]
    Context in the cytoplasm of the cell
    This perspective of the structure of a mitochondrion is modeled after a perspective in Audesirk & Audesirk. It depicts an individual, sausage-shaped mitochondrion, which are typically 1 to 4μ long. There is a great variety in structure including tubular structures with multiple branches. They can divide by fission and fuse into complex structures. Karp has electron micrographs of several varieties. The common elements include an outer membrane that is porous, penetrated by integral proteins called porins. They also include much less porous inner membranes formed in double-layered membranous sheets called cristae.

    Order and disorder in biological systems.
    Energy cycle in living things Index

    Reference
    Audesirk & Audesirk
    Ch 8

    Karp
    Ch 5

    HyperPhysics***** Biology R Nave Go Back
     
  12. JanSz

    JanSz Gold

    http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Biology/enercyc.html#c1
    Energy Cycle in Living Things
    A fascinating parallel between plant and animal life is in the use of tiny energy factories within the cells to handle the energy transformation processes necessary for life. In plants, these energy factories are called chloroplasts. They collect energy from the sun and use carbon dioxide and water in the process called photosynthesis to produce sugars. Animals can make use of the sugars provided by the plants in their own cellular energy factories, the mitochondria. These produce a versatile energy currency in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This high-energy molecule stores the energy we need to do just about everything we do.

    [​IMG]
    The energy cycle for life is fueled by the Sun. The main end product for plants and animals is the production of highly energetic molecules like ATP . These molecules store enough immediately available energy to allow plants and animals to do their necessary work.

    The functional work (energy transformations) of plants and animals.
    Order and disorder in biological systems. Index

    Second law concepts

    HyperPhysics***** Biology R Nave Go Back





    The Work of Living Things
    There are a number of energy transformations in plants and animals which are essential to life. These processes will be described as the "work" of living things, although it is not immediately evident that they involve work in the physical sense. Some of the general kinds of processes involved in the energy cycle are:

    Synthetic Work
    Both plants and animals must make the complex molecules necessary for life. One example is the production of DNA - your genetic material. If you don't make extra copies of DNA, you will have no information to pass on to your offspring. Every time one of your cells makes a copy of itself, it has to make a new copy of the DNA. That synthesis process requires a lot of ATP.

    The process of growth requires a lot of synthetic work to create the new cells and enlarge the structures.

    Electrical Work
    You may not think of yourself as an electrically operated machine, but you are. Each of our cells has an electric potential associated with it. This potential, or voltage, helps to control the migration of ions across the cell membranes. A major example of electrical work is in the operation of the nerves. When your nerves fire, they generate an electrical impulse called an action potential which can communicate information to your brain, or carry a signal from your brain to a muscle to initiate its movement.

    Electrical energy transformation is essential for sensing your environment as well as for reacting to that environment in any way.

    Mechanical Work
    Most easily visualized is the mechanical work associated with the moving of our muscles. This muscle movement is very important and requires a lot of energy. The source of that energy is ATP.
    Index

    Second law concepts

    HyperPhysics***** Biology R Nave Go Back
     
  13. JanSz

    JanSz Gold

  14. JanSz

    JanSz Gold

  15. JanSz

    JanSz Gold

    http://www.bsu.edu/classes/ruch/Bio111/membques.html

    CHAPTER 5: Biological Membranes
    Practice Test Questions
    MULTIPLE CHOICE
    1. Which statement is not true of membrane phospholipids?

    a. They flop readily from one side on the membrane to the other.
    b. They give the membrane fluidity.
    c. They have hydrophilic "heads."
    d. They have hydrophobic "tails."
    e. They associate to form bilayers.

    2. Which of the following factors would tend to increase membrane fluidity?
    a. a lower temperature.
    b. a lower cholesterol concentration in the membrane.
    c. a grater proportion of unsaturated phospholipids.
    d. a greater proportion of relatively large glycolipids compared to lipids having smaller molecular weights.
    e. all of the above, a to d, would increase membrane fluidity.

    3. Which statement is not true of membrane proteins?
    a. They all extend from one side of the membrane to the other.
    b. Some serve as channels for ions to cross the membrane.
    c. Many are free to migrate laterally within the membrane.
    d. Their position in the membrane is determined by their tertiary structure.
    e. Some participate in certain enzymatic reactions.

    4. Which statement is not true of diffusion?
    a. It is the movement of molecules or ions to a state of even distribution.
    b. At the subcellular level it is a slow process.
    c. The motion of each molecule or ion is random.
    d. The diffusion of each substance is independent of that of other substances.
    e. Diffusion over meters takes years.

    5. Which has the least effect on the rate of diffusion of a solvent through a permeable membrane?
    a. temperature of the system
    b. size of the solvent molecule
    c. pH of the solvent
    d. membrane area
    e. steepness of the concentration gradient

    6. Facilitated diffusion and carrier-mediated active transport:
    a. both require ATP.
    b. both require the use of proteins as carriers.
    c. both carry solutes in only one directions.
    d. both increase without limit as the solute concentration increases.
    e. both depend on the solubility of the solute in lipid.

    7. Which statement is not true of osmosis?
    a. It obeys the laws of diffusion.
    b. Two cells with the same osmotic pressure are isotonic to each other.
    c. Osmosis can only occur across a semipermeable membrane and only if one of the solutes of the system is non-diffusible.
    d. Red blood cells must be kept in a solution that is hypotonic to the cells.
    e. In animal tissues, water moves to the cells with the lowest water concentration.

    8. Plant cells are turgid when bathed in a solution that is:
    turgid-->Swollen or distended
    a. hypotonic to the cell.
    b. hypertonic to the cell.
    c. isotonic to the cell.
    d. isotonic to sea water.
    e. lower in water concentration than the cell.

    9. A protozoan's contractile vacuole is more likely to be active:
    a. in a hypertonic environment.
    b. in an isotonic environment.
    c. in a hypotonic environment.
    d. when endocytosis is occurring.

    10. The membrane-bound sodium-potassium pump is termed electrogenic (= producing an electrical difference) because:
    a. it hydrolyzes ATP.
    b. it pumps positive charges out of the cell and negative charges into the cell.
    c. it pumps three positive charges out of the cell for every two positive charges it pumps into the cell.
    d. it pumps H+ out of the cell along with Na+.
    e. it pumps electrons into the cell.



    TRUE or FALSE
    11. Membrane carbohydrates are important in recognition reactions at the cell surface. true

    12. Cells placed in a hypertonic solution will develop turgor pressure or burst. False (Will plasmolyze or crenate)

    13. If the entry of a solute into a cell requires the addition of energy and does not change with increasing solute concentration, the solute is likely moving by active transport. True

    14. Gap junctions permit the transfer of water, ions, and molecules between adjacent plant cells.False

    15. G-proteins are structural constituents of the plasma membrane, whereas cAMP is a mobile compound in the cytosol.True




    ANSWERS
    1. a
    2. c
    3. a
    4. b
    5. c
    6. b
    7. d
    8. a
    9. c
    10. c
    11. True
    12. False (Will plasmolyze or crenate)
    13. True
    14. False
    15. True

    Return to TOP OF PAGE

    Return to PRACTICE TEST QUESTIONS INDEX PAGE
     
    Last edited: Dec 7, 2016
  16. JanSz

    JanSz Gold

    http://www.bioportfolio.com/resourc...-Membrane-Fluidity-A-Meta-analysis-for-a.html

    Summary of "Influence of Phospholipid Species on Membrane Fluidity: A Meta-analysis for a Novel Phospholipid Fluidity Index."
    Generalized membrane lipid composition determinants of fluidity have been widely investigated, including phospholipid/cholesterol ratio and unsaturation index. Individual phospholipids differ in their physical characteristics, including their interaction with cholesterol and level of unsaturation, emphasizing the importance of examining their individual influence on membrane fluidity. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the
    dominant phospholipids of biological membranes (phosphatidylcholine, PC; phosphatidylethanolamine, PE; sphingomyelin, SM) through a meta-analysis to assess the validity of an inclusive
    phospholipid fluidity index (PFI = PC/(PE + SM))
    as a determinant for membrane fluidity (expressed as polarization of fluorescent probe 1,6 diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene) in comparison to previous phospholipid ratios (PC/PE and PC/SM). The results demonstrate that all indices significantly predicted membrane fluidity at 25°C (based on 10-13 data points). In contrast, only PFI approached significance when predicting membrane fluidity at 37°C (P = 0.10 based on five points). As a result, PFI appears to be the only phospholipid index close to significantly predicting membrane fluidity at mammalian physiological temperature. Because this meta-analysis only assessed studies using mammalian membranes, future work should experimentally assess the validity of the PFI utilizing membranes from mammals and a variety of other species and tissues at their respective physiological temperatures.
     
  17. JanSz

    JanSz Gold

    http://www.bioportfolio.com/resourc...d-molecular-species-composition-of-human.html

    Changes in fatty acid profile and phospholipid molecular species composition of human erythrocytes membranes after hybrid palm and extra virgin olive oil supplementation.
    08:00 EDT 17th June 2016 | BioPortfolio
    Home
    » Topics » Blood » Research » Changes in fatty acid profile and phospholipid molecular species composition of human erythrocytes membranes after hybrid palm and extra virgin olive oil supplementation.
    Summary of "Changes in fatty acid profile and phospholipid molecular species composition of human erythrocytes membranes after hybrid palm and extra virgin olive oil supplementation."
    The present work aimed to evaluate and compare, for the first time, the effects of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and hybrid palm oil (HPO) supplementation on fatty acid profile and phospholipid (PL) molecular species composition of human erythrocyte membranes. Results supported the effectiveness of both HPO and EVOO supplementation (3-month, 25mL/day) in decreasing the lipophilic index of erythrocytes with no significant differences between HPO and EVOO groups at month 3. On the other hand, the novel and rapid UPLC/MS/MS method used for PL analysis reveals an increase in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine species esterified with polyunsaturated fatty acids. The present work demonstrated the ability of both EVOO and HPO to increase the degree of unsaturation of erythrocyte membrane lipids with an improvement in the membrane fluidity that could be associated with a lower risk to develop cardiovascular diseases.
     
  18. JanSz

    JanSz Gold

    http://www.patana.ac.th/Secondary/Science/IBtopics/IBCell (01)/Pages/1.4.htm

    Topic 1.4: Cell Membrane
    Homepage
    Topic Index
    Cell Index
    1.4.1 Fluid mosaic model
    [​IMG]
    • Fluid because it can change shape but also because the phospholipids can change position in the same plane
    • Mosaic as the membrane has protein molecules embedded and attached to its surface
    • This model accounts for the behaviour observed in cell membranes. Like a any good model it also predicts some characteristics.
    Membrane Structure

    Function

    Phospholipid Bilayer

    • The phospholipids are arranged in a bilayer, with their polar, hydrophilic phosphate heads facing outwards, and their non-polar, hydrophobic fatty acid tails facing each other in the middle of the bilayer.

    • This hydrophobic layer acts as a barrier to all but the smallest molecules(oxygen & Carbon Dioxide), effectively isolating the two sides of the membrane.

    • Phospholipids can exchange position in the horizontal plane but not the vertical.
    Integral Proteins

    • Usually span from one side of the phospholipid bilayer to the other.

    • Proteins that span the membrane are usually involved in transporting substances across the membrane (more detail below)
    Peripheral Proteins

    • These proteins sit on one of the surfaces (peripheral proteins). They can slide around the membrane very quickly and collide with each other, but can never flip from one side to the other.

    • Proteins on the inside surface of plasma membrane are often involved in maintaining the cell's shape, or in cell motility.

    • They may also be enzymes, catalysing reactions in the cytoplasm.
    Glycoproteins

    • Usually involved in cell recognition which is part of the immune system. They can also acts as receptors in cell signaling such as with hormones.
    Cholesterol

    • Binds together lipid in the plasma membrane reducing its fluidity as conferring structural stability
    1.4.2 Phospholipid Properties
    [​IMG]
    This model of the bilayer's have the proteins removed.

    • The 'head's have large phosphate groups, thus they are hydrophilic (attract water) or polar. These section are suited to the large water content of the tissue fluid and cytoplasm on opposite sides of the membrane.
    • The fatty acid tails are non-charged, hydrophobic and repel water. This creates a barrier between the internal and external 'water' environments of the cell. The 'tails' effectively create a barrier to the movement of charged molecules
    • The individual phospholipids are attracted through their charges and this gives some stability. They can however move around in this plane
    • The stability of the phospholipid can be increased by the presence of cholesterol molecules.
    1.4.3 Membrane Protein Functions
    Membrane Protein
    Function

    • Channel Protein
    • These proteins span the membrane from one side to another. They allow the movement of large molecules across the plasma membrane. Included within this are the passive and active membrane pumps
    • Receptor proteins
    • These proteins may detect hormones arriving at cells to signal changes in function. They may also be involved in other cell and substance recognition as in the immune system.
    • Enzymes
    • Integral in the membrane they may be enzymes e.g. ATP Synthetase, Maltase
    • Electron carriers
    1.4.4 Diffusion and Osmosis

    Diffusion:

    This model illustrates the main features of the process of diffusion.

    • The movement of particles is caused by the kinetic energy possessed by the particle
    • The direction of movement is random
    • Observing groups of particles they appear to move from regions of high concentration to regions of low concentration
    • This can be restated has from a region of high pressure to a region of low pressure
    • However, most biological diffusion takes place through membranes and involves sources, sinks and diffusion gradients




    Diffusion through a membrane:
    This model shows diffusion through a membrane:

    The places that supplies the high concentration of particles is called the source.

    The place where the substances is removed (or changed) is called the sink

    Maintaining the concentration gradient between the two areas is a feature of biological systems

    Osmosis is:
    • the passive movement of water molecules, across a partially permeable membrane
    • from a region of lower solute concentration to a region of higher solute concentration
    • water moves(kinetic energy) through plasma membranes in an unrestricted way as it is so small




    • In this image of osmosis the solute is represented by the green molecules. The water is represented by the blue molecules.
    • The water molecules have kinetic energy like other molecules.
    • The water molecules move randomly and will if they come into contact with the membrane pass straight through.
    • The tendency is for water to pass from lower solute (left) to higher solute (right) concentrations.




    Effects of osmosis on cells:
    [​IMG]
    The effect on a cell depends on whether the cell is animal or plant and has a cell wall.

    The examples illustrate the problems that organisms will have if they live in:

    • concentrated solutions (hypertonic)
    • dilute solutions (hypo tonic)
    Most organism have a mechanism to deal with these difficulties. These are studied through out the course.

    How do you maintain isotonic conditions for your tissues?

    1.4.5 Passive Diffusion across membranes
    The passive movement implies that there is no expenditure of energy in moving the molecules from one side of the membrane to the other:




    [​IMG]
    Some molecules are so small that they pass through the membrane with little resistance

    • The include Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide and Water
    • Lipid molecules pass through membranes with very little resistance also.
    [​IMG]
    • Larger molecules move passively through the membrane via channel proteins
    • These proteins have large globular structures and complex 3d-shapes
    • The shapes provide a channel through the middle of the protein, the 'pore'
    • The channel 'shields' the diffusing molecule from the non-charged regions of the membrane.
    1.4.6 Active Transport
    [​IMG]
    • Active mean that the membrane protein 'pump' requires energy to function
    • The source of energy is ATP from respiration
    • This moves the molecules from low to high concentration against the concentration gradient
    • The energy causes a shape change in the protein that allows it to move the molecule to the other side of the membrane.
    • Click the image to show the sodium-potassium, pump that creates electro-chemical gradient in the cell
    1.4.7 Movement of Vesicles
    • Proteins for secretion are manufactured on the ribosomes of the rough endoplasmic reticulum.
    • When finished they enter the endoplasmic reticulum. Here they may be modified as they make their way to vesicle formation.
    • The vesicle buds off and migrates through the cytoplasm
    • At the cell membrane the vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane secreting its contents outside of the cell.(Exocytosis/see below)

    • The vesicles from the golgi apparatus are produced and secret their contents in much the same way. However to fully appreciate this process we need to examine the process of exocytosis/ endocytosis and membrane fusion.
    1.4.8 Membrane Fluidity and Exo/Endocytosis
    • The plasma membrane and the membranes that form many of the organelles is described as being fluid.
    • If we observe the phosphate heads of the phospholipid bilayer from 'above' we would see the heads moving and changing position in the horizontal plane. There is no such movement of phospholipids in the vertical plane
    [​IMG]
    Fluidity: The membrane can change its shape

    a) Movement in the horizontal plane with Phospholipid molecules change position with each other. This leads the the flowing or fluidity of the membrane

    b) No vertical exchange occurs and this retain the integrity of the membrane structure

    Cholesterol in the membrane however restrict lipid movement and increases membrane stability

    [​IMG]
    Membrane Fusion:

    The ability of the membrane to join together in a self sealing fashion has long been recorded in the processes of

    • exocytosis
    • endocytosis
    • vesicle formation/fusion
    This model shows endocytosis in which the engulfed particle is then digested by enzymes from the cell.

    Mechanism of membrane fusion:

    [​IMG]
    Evidence for the model of membrane fusion was only produced and published in 2002 by Lin Yang and Huey Huang.

    They developed a model that showed that it is the proportion of other molecules in the plasma membrane that will determine whether is opens or closes.

    It is suggested that the molecules that initiate membrane fusion or breakage will be:

    • lipids
    • cholesterol
    • proteins
    They derived their model by a serendipitous observations whilst performing other experiments.

    With x-ray diffraction patterns they showed how the phospholipids will form an hourglass shape at the point of contact. (click image for diffraction x-rays)

    The sequence of diagrams shows how a membrane might fuse or split and yet self-seal during a wide variety of biological situations. It has not been lost on the researchers the potential uses of this knowledge and mechanism in medical therapies.

    These biological issues concerning membranes are covered throughout this course. It is astonishing that such a common concept had to wait until 2002 for Lin Yang and Huey Huang to produce the crucial evidence. This outstanding research will still take some time to reach school textbooks. Please follow the link

    TOP
     
  19. JanSz

    JanSz Gold

    http://blog.bodybio.com/healthcare-professionals/

    BODYBIO BULLETINS
    [​IMG]
    The Remarkable 4:1 FattyAcid Ratio and The Brain
    Download

    [​IMG]
    Why 4:1 Ratio Oil?
    Download

    [​IMG]
    The Inside Story of Omega 3 Fatty Acids
    Download

    [​IMG]
    Cholesterol Bulletin http://www.bodybio.com/BodyBio/docs/BodyBioBulletin-Cholesterol.pdf
    Download

    [​IMG]
    Phosphatidylcholine Bulletin
    Download

    [​IMG]
    Answers To Nature Magazine Article
    Download

    [​IMG]
    Liquid Minerals Bulletin
    Download

    [​IMG]
    Why Vitamins Bulletin
    Download

    [​IMG]
    Phosphatidylcholine PC – Fountain of Health
    Download
     
    Last edited: Dec 7, 2016
  20. JanSz

    JanSz Gold

    http://blog.bodybio.com/download/why-41-ratio-oil/?wpdmdl=1268

    The membrane is the outside skin that surrounds every cell,
    however, there is much more membrane on the inside of
    the cell, actually ten times more, surrounding all the tiny
    organelles inside the cell.


    Cholesterol and Arachidonic Acid
    Two Vital
    FATS
    That Get No Respect


    Cholesterol is not only a vital cellular molecule, it is also a large part of us, as it occupies 30-40% of our membrane (Gurr 2002 6). It is the precursor for vital hormones such as the adrenals, our fight or flight hormones, and the gonads, hormones that drive our reproductivemachinery. Cholesterol is important for the metabolism of the fat soluble vitamins, A, D, E and K, and is a precursor for bile acids which manage our fatty acid intake from the gut to the cells. It is intimately involved in regulating membrane fluidity over a wide range of temperatures,as well as creating a strong membrane structure, which,incidentally, equates to a strong overall metabolism. Most individuals with high cholesterol have a strong metabolism--- and they know it.
    Very little appears to impact one with high cholesterol, like airborne disturbances such as pollen with its potential for allergy,
    etc. “When present at high concentrations, cholesterol enhances the mechanical strength of the membrane, reduces its permeability, and suppresses the main-phase
    transition of the lipid bilayer” (McMullen 19967).

    autistic spectrum disorder
    cognitive abilities
    Cholesterol is an essential element of myelin, the insulating material crucial for nerve function in the brain and central nervous system.
    hypo-cholesterolemia is common among tuberculous patients

    How to raise Total Cholesterol?
    http://blog.bodybio.com/download/why-41-ratio-oil/?wpdmdl=1268

    How to raise Total Cholesterol?
    How to raise Total Cholesterol?

    “Women who are having a difficult time becoming pregnant should first look at their cholesterol level as it is invariably low. As the diet is expanded to include essential fatty acids and phosphatidylcholine, the hormones derived from cholesterol normalize and pregnancy can more
    easily follow, and often does.
    Similarly, patients with environmental illness almost always have low cholesterol including those with sensitivity to foods, chemicals, or even frequencies, like Wi-fi , which are commonly due to
    the instability of the cell membrane. One patient complained that he had developed such a severe sensitivity to Wi-fi frequency that he could not travel or go into many business settings. His lab analyses revealed that he had a very low cholesterol level with a low Total Lipid Content
    within his red cells. The patient found relief from his symptoms after receiving high dosing with
    IV phosphatidylcholine and a diet high in eggs, butter, wild salmon and balanced essential fatty acid supplementation.”

    ----
    Personally, I would first do fatty acids analysis and then decide about salmon.

    =====================================
    about lowering cholesterol'

    Life is a balancing act. There
    are a large number of studies on the effectiveness of lowering
    cholesterol by using the primary parent EFAs, the

    omega-6 linoleic, and omega-3 à-linolenic.
    http://www.bodybio.com/BodyBio/docs/BodyBioBulletin-Cholesterol.pdf
    ===============================================

    Low cholesterol is not healthy
    --- that’s a
    statement you will probably never hear or see in print.

    .
     
    Last edited: Dec 7, 2016

Share This Page