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Hydrogen proton's........rogueness.

Discussion in 'Mitochondrial Rx' started by Jack Kruse, Dec 10, 2014.

  1. Jack Kruse

    Jack Kruse Administrator

    Hydrogen has the largest energy density over any other fuel in the world. When we burn hydrogen in air, the reaction should be:

    2H2(g)+O2(g) → 2H2(l) (ΔH=-286kJ/mol)
    Which means that 1mol of hydrogen can produce 286kJ energy through reaction with oxygen. It is different when proton spin is altered. Obviously, the energy density of hydrogen is E = 286 kJ/mol × 0.5 mol/g = 143kJ/g, which is much higher than that of many other fuels such as methane. Because of the high energy density, in order to reduce the weight of space shuttle, people choose to use liquid hydrogen as the fuel.
     
  2. Jack Kruse

    Jack Kruse Administrator

    What are the two products of mitochondrial action? CO2 and water................


    Another important application of "hydrogen action" as an energy carrier is in the ultimate biologic fuel cell (think monopole). Hydrogen (H+) acts as the anode (like the planets) and splits into protons and electrons under the assistance of catalyst (sunlight or hydrophilic proteins). Protons move from anode towards cathode through a conductive electrolyte 9cell water or an ionic plasma), and electrons go through external circuit (ECT) and meet with protons and oxygen in cathode (cytochromes). Then the product, water, is produced, as well as electric power (BOOM). The voltage of this cell can be calculated by the Gibbs free energy, ΔG = -237.1 kJ/mol, which gives the voltage applying the Nernst equation E = -ΔG/nF = 237.1kJ/mol2 × 96485C/mol = 1.229 V. The fuel cells (sum or mitochondria) contain a large amount of energy, and the product is water, which is totally friendly to the environment. Did you know new stars spew out water when they are formed? The investigations into the fuel cells are going to make an avenue to the applications of hydrogen as an energy carrier, such as the hydrogen cars and hydrogen power station.

    http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2011/06/110613-space-science-star-water-bullets-kristensen/
    http://www.popsci.com/technology/ar...ng-star-spewing-water-jets-interstellar-space

    The sun and mitochondria have a lot in common...............I am just piecing it together for you as you're in disbelief.
     
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  3. Jack Kruse

    Jack Kruse Administrator

    Nowadays there are two ways for us to produce hydrogen. In industry, hydrogen is produced by steam reforming of natural gas (CH4), which is shown as follows:

    CH4(g) + H2O(g) → CO(g) + 3H2(g)
    Most of the hydrogen we use today comes out from this reaction in factories.


    we dont have methane and we are not a factory. So where does H+ come from in our biologic star: a mitochondria?
     
  4. Jack Kruse

    Jack Kruse Administrator

    In humans, who have more mitochondria in their brain, what surrounds the neocortex? CSF. 99.9% of CSF is what? Water.

    Want to guess where mitochondria H+ comes from?

    Most want to guess food.................

    Y'all are too smart for that.
     
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  5. Jack Kruse

    Jack Kruse Administrator

    However, it is familiar to most people on my site that we can also split water to produce hydrogen. As I mentioned above in a biologic fuel cell, the output voltage is 1.23 V. This voltage is reversible (key point of the tensegrity system), which means that 1.23 V is the lowest limit voltage we need to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. However, the voltage is calculated thermodynamically (statistically), and kinetically (sounds like the matrix no?) , higher voltage is needed depending on the electrode we use (inner mito membrane has 30,000,000 volts DHA and thinness). This 'idea' relates to the catalyst for hydrogen's evolution into life, and in order to explain it clearly, I introduce the Tafel behavior in g electrochemistry briefly. What is that?

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tafel_equation

    For Hydrogen to evolve or emerge with acid electrolyte, hydrogen evolves from the reaction 2H + aq + 2e → H2(g). The rate of this reaction is tested by the current through the circuit. The relationship between the current and the voltage we apply is called current-overpotential equation: (another name for the Tafel equation)

    i = i0 [C0(0,t)/C0* e-αnfη - CR(0,t)/CR*e (1-α)nfη]
    in which C0 and CR represent the concentrations of the participants, i0 is the exchange current, α stands for the asymmetry coefficient, f=F/RT, and η represents the overpotential. When the overpotential goes to large negative, the left term in the bracket is much larger than the right one, and the equation can be rewritten as i=i0 e-αnfη. The current increases exponentially with overpotential, which is named as Tafel behavior. From this behavior, we can extract two important parameters, exchange current i0 and Tafel slope 1/αnf by fitting the linear relationship between log(i) and η. These two parameters are the criterions for the catalytic activity of catalysts. In order to be the best catalyst for hydrogen to evolve/emerge, it should achieve the largest exchange current and the smallest Tafel slope. And until now, as we now realize, platinum is the unbeatable catalyst for hydrogen evolution which has the exchange current density of 4.5 × 10-4 A/cm2, and the Tafel slope as small as 30 mV/decade. This works in your car..........but not so much in us. We use something else.
     
  6. Jack Kruse

    Jack Kruse Administrator

    We dont use platinum for two reasons........atomic mass too big.......and it is rare on earth like Helium.

    So what do we use in our cells sun?
     
  7. Jack Kruse

    Jack Kruse Administrator

    Molybdenum and sulfur or phosphorus The free energy calculations for MoS2 is very close to platinium.

    Ironic, no? MoS2
     
    Danny likes this.
  8. Jack Kruse

    Jack Kruse Administrator

    Do we have MoS2?

    Nope.


    What do we have? Moly and Fe-S clusters. and electrons and protons in the cytochrome channels. Fe is ferromagnetic and S dimagnetic.

    Moly is special too in a magnetic field.........and electron sink
     
  9. Jack Kruse

    Jack Kruse Administrator

    The whole process of Hydrogen evolution/emergence in a system can be divided into two steps: absorption and desorption. First, the protons from the solution (ionic plasma) are attached to the catalytic sites of the electrode (matrix close to Molybdenum). Then the electrons from the electrode combine with the protons to form hydrogen atoms. Two hydrogen atoms combine together to become a hydrogen molecule. Desorption then takes place and molecular hydrogen leaves from the site of the electrode. One of the two steps may be the rate determine step. Platinum is the rate determining step in a car's exhaust and is the desorption step because the Gibbs free energy is uphill. For MoS2, the rate determining step changes to the absorption step. Why is this big? Because it becomes a zero entropy step because Gibbs free energy of the reaction is ZERO!!! This is why biology like Moly. Any time the Gibbs free energy approaches to zero, the catalyst becomes very active (kinetic ipsotope effect) because the rate determining step is also very fast (faster than the speed of light).

    Now remember that Mo and S are close to one another with iron in between them on the inner mitochondrial membrane. Coincidence? However, bulk chemical MoS2, it is not active for Hydrogen evolution at all because of its atomic structure.

    Here you see QED enter the picture with size and shape and quantum abilities. MoS2 has a hexagonal structure consisting of three covalently bonded atomic sheets, which are S-Mo-S in sequence. The planar, two-dimensional layers are linked by van der Waals interaction. Mitochondria break up this effect by putting Fe next to the S and further away from Moly.

    Why? The reason why bulk chemical MoS2 is not an active catalyst for hydrogen in biology is because not enough edge sites are exposed. So what did lady evolution do?

    She decided to use a transition metal with lots of D shell electrons that was ferromagnetic and could electrically or magnetically effect this atomic relationship.
     
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  10. Jack Kruse

    Jack Kruse Administrator

    Cites for my ramblings:

    [1] A. J. Bard and L. R. Faulkner, Electrochemical Methods (Wiley, 2000).

    [2] B. E. Conway and B. V. Tilak, "Interfacial Processes Involving Electrocatalytic Evolution and Oxidation of H2 and the Role of Chemisorbed H," Electrochim. Acta 47, 3571 (2002).

    [3] B. Hinnemann et al., "Biomimetic Hydrogen Evolution: MoS2 Nanoparticles as Catalyst for Hydrogen Evolution," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 5308 (2005).

    [4] C. Kisielowski et al., "Imaging MoS2 Nanocatalysts With Single-Atom Sensitivity," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 49, 2708 (2010).

    [5] T. F. Jaramillo et al., "Identification of Active Edge Sites for Electrochemical H2 Evolution From MoS2 Nanocatalysts," Science 317, 100 (2007).

    [6] Y. Li et al., "MoS2 Nanoparticles Grown on Graphene: An Advanced Catalyst for the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 7296 (2011).

    [7] Z. Chen et al., "Core-Shell MoO3 Nanowires for Hydrogen Evolution: A Functional Design for Electrocatalytic Materials," Nano Lett. 11, 4168 (2011).

    [8] J. D. Benck et al., "Amorphous Molybdenum Sulfide Catalysts for Electrochemical Hydrogen Production: Insights Into the Origin of Their Catalytic Activity," ACS Catal. 2, 1916 (2012).
     
  11. Pebbles

    Pebbles Gold

    Wow! It is now more clear why Moly helps in sulphur problems - (histamine, CBS, COMT,Mast cell deg, etc)
     
    Danny likes this.
  12. nonchalant

    nonchalant Silver

    Not sure how moly is affecting me personally, but wow, onions sure rock lately! I fight DH for the last pieces on the plate. I have stopped taking my methylation/vitamin B stuff for winter. I finally finished my bottle of moly (over the last 3 months or so) and I'm thinking about getting another. One more thing, I like broccoli crowns a lot more. I used to just like the stems, which seem to be out of fashion in the grocery stores.

    I wonder if Mount Pleasant, TX still stinks for me. It is right next to the Sulphur River.
     
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  13. Jack Kruse

    Jack Kruse Administrator

    When an atomic nucleus, like H+ is within a magnetic field like it would be in the mitochondrial matrix stripped of its sole electron, and an electron carrying a photon releases that photon to the H+ nucleus an the H+ absorbs a photon, you can get "natural nuclear magnetic" resonance. These photons are in the radiofrequency range of the EM spectrum. I'd have you remember that protons are positively charged and electrons are negatively charged..........so what happens when you strip all the negative charges in a mitochondria? You're left with a lot of positive charges and you create a magnetic monopole. Remember the DC current goes from a positive region to a negative one in wakefulness........and MEG data is highest for tissues with mitochondria..........you should remain a skeptic of my work. I will continue my detective nature of nature's recipes because the data is piling up on my theories................
     
    Last edited: Dec 11, 2014
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  14. Shijin13

    Shijin13 Guest

    BOOM Jack. This morning during my CT I was thinking about why HCG works, and it comes down to the increased Hydrogen bonds and the associated energies Hydrogen creates when HCG increases condensed water at the mitochondria! damn.... you're lighting my brain up today....
     
    Danny likes this.
  15. Hansen Kenimer

    Hansen Kenimer New Member

    Dr Kruse, what are your thoughts on Cellfood? It's a water additive now known to be deuterium sulfate.
     
  16. Jack Kruse

    Jack Kruse Administrator

    Q & A answered that.........in detail. Not a fan of deuterium.
     

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