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High Altitude and the Endocrine system

Discussion in 'Adrenal Rx and Leaky Gut Rx' started by chocolate, Apr 22, 2012.

  1. chocolate

    chocolate Silver

  2. chocolate

    chocolate Silver

    http://theoncologist.alphamedpress.org/content/8/suppl_1/15.full from the oncologist....entire article is good....Type A blood does not have sialic acid



    The Cellular Biology of Erythropoietin Receptors





    Approximately 60% of the erythropoietin molecule is protein and the remainder is carbohydrate. Each of the four carbohydrate groups (Fig. 2⇑) consists of a small, branched chain of sugars, some of which terminate in sialic acid. The presence of sialic acid on the carbohydrate slows the rate of clearance of erythropoietin by the liver. Clearly, the longer erythropoietin remains in the circulation, the greater the opportunity for it to stimulate erythroid progenitor cells located in the bone marrow.
     
  3. chocolate

    chocolate Silver

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18800958 High Altitude versus low altitude Sherpas



    Impaired glucose regulation in a Sherpa indigenous population living in the Everest region of Nepal and in Kathmandu Valley.



    Abstract



    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of impaired glucose regulation status in Sherpa adults living in the Everest area and in Kathmandu valley. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Chaurikharka village (Everest area) and Kathmandu city on 119 and 121 randomly selected individuals, aged 30-70 years. They were assessed on conventional risk factors for diabetes, and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Based on the 2003 American Diabetes Association criteria, the prevalence in the Kathmandu city and Everest region of any impaired glucose regulation (IGR), isolated impaired fasting plasma glucose (isolated IFG), isolated impaired glucose tolerance (isolated IGT), and combined isolated IFG and isolated IGT were 55.4% vs. 23.5%, 42.1% vs. 14.3%, 1.7% vs. 0.8%, 11.6 vs. 8.4%, respectively. Using the subjects with normal glucose tolerance as the referent group and after adjusting for age, sex, physical activity, calories, and waist circumference, the odds ratios for isolated IFG and combined isolated IFG and isolated IGT of living in the highland region were 0.19 (0.08-0.44) and 0.33 (0.09-1.18), respectively. Isolated IFG was more common among the lowland Sherpas. Unlike combined isolated IFG and isolated IGT, this isolated IFG difference could not be explained by the difference of conventional diabetes mellitus risk factors.





    I wish I could find the Sherpa's blood types. Second generation lowland sherpas adapt more quickly to the altitude than others.



    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17971439



    Higher blood flow and circulating NO products offset high-altitude hypoxia among Tibetans.

    Erzurum SC, Ghosh S, Janocha AJ, Xu W, Bauer S, Bryan NS, Tejero J, Hemann C, Hille R, Stuehr DJ, Feelisch M, Beall CM.

    Source



    Department of Pathobiology, Allergy, and Critical Care, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA.

    Abstract



    The low barometric pressure at high altitude causes lower arterial oxygen content among Tibetan highlanders, who maintain normal levels of oxygen use as indicated by basal and maximal oxygen consumption levels that are consistent with sea level predictions. This study tested the hypothesis that Tibetans resident at 4,200 m offset physiological hypoxia and achieve normal oxygen delivery by means of higher blood flow enabled by higher levels of bioactive forms of NO, the main endothelial factor regulating blood flow and vascular resistance. The natural experimental study design compared Tibetans at 4,200 m and U.S. residents at 206 m. Eighty-eight Tibetan and 50 U.S. resident volunteers (18-56 years of age, healthy, nonsmoking, nonhypertensive, not pregnant, with normal pulmonary function) participated. Forearm blood flow, an indicator of systemic blood flow, was measured noninvasively by using plethysmography at rest, after breathing supplemental oxygen, and after exercise. The Tibetans had more than double the forearm blood flow of low-altitude residents, resulting in greater than sea level oxygen delivery to tissues. In comparison to sea level controls, Tibetans had >10-fold-higher circulating concentrations of bioactive NO products, including plasma and red blood cell nitrate and nitroso proteins and plasma nitrite, but lower concentrations of iron nitrosyl complexes (HbFeIINO) in red blood cells. This suggests that NO production is increased and that metabolic pathways controlling formation of NO products are regulated differently among Tibetans. These findings shift attention from the traditional focus on pulmonary and hematological systems to vascular factors contributing to adaptation to high-altitude hypoxia.
     
  4. chocolate

    chocolate Silver

    http://jeb.biologists.org/content/215/2/256.abstract

    High-altitude diving in river otters: coping with combined hypoxic stresses



    SUMMARY



    River otters (Lontra canadensis) are highly active, semi-aquatic mammals indigenous to a range of elevations and represent an appropriate model for assessing the physiological responses to diving at altitude. In this study, we performed blood gas analyses and compared blood chemistry of river otters from a high-elevation (2357 m) population at Yellowstone Lake with a sea-level population along the Pacific coast. Comparisons of oxygen dissociation curves (ODC) revealed no significant difference in hemoglobin-oxygen (Hb-O2) binding affinity between the two populations - potentially because of demands for tissue oxygenation. Instead, high-elevation otters had greater Hb concentrations (18.7 g dl-1) than sea-level otters (15.6 g dl-1). Yellowstone otters displayed higher levels of the vasodilator nitric oxide (NO), and half the concentration of the serum protein albumin, possibly to compensate for increased blood viscosity. Despite compensation in several hematological and serological parameters, theoretical aerobic dive limits (ADL) were similar between high-elevation and sea-level otters because of the lower availability of O2 at altitude. Our results suggest that recent disruptions to the Yellowstone Lake food web could be detrimental to otters because at this high elevation, constraints on diving may limit their ability to switch to prey in a deep-water environment.

    KEY WORDS



    albumin

    chloride shift

    hemoglobin binding affinity

    invasive species

    Lontra canadensis

    nitric oxide

    oxygen dissociation curve
     
  5. Jack Kruse

    Jack Kruse Administrator

    The sherpas biggest health risk is guess what?
     
  6. Jack Kruse

    Jack Kruse Administrator

    Goiter.....they have huge thyroids because they are cold and high and have no access to Iodine. It causes airway obstruction
     
    Arborescence likes this.
  7. chocolate

    chocolate Silver

    http://journals.lww.com/nephrologytimes/blog/breakingnews/pages/post.aspx?PostID=40

    Altitude Adjustment in Cardiovascular Risk Observed for Dialysis Patients

    Dialysis patients living at high altitudes have lower cardiovascular event rates, reported a recent study published online ahead of print by Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation.

    Cardiovascular risk was 20% lower for patients residing at 4,000-5,999 feet and 19% lower for patients residing at 6,000 ft or higher, compared with otherwise similar patients who lived at or near sea level, found the researchers, who were led by Wolfgang C. Winkelmayer, MD, ScD, of Stanford University School of Medicine.

    This work built on the researchers' previous observation that US dialysis patients and members of the general population who resided at higher altitudes had lower all-cause mortality rates.

    In the new study, rates of myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular death were 31%, 32%, and 23% lower, respectively, among patients living above 6,000 ft compared with patients residing at or near sea level.

    Dr. Winkelmayer and colleagues studied all adult patients from the US Renal Data System with sufficient data who initiated hemodialysis treatment between 1995 and 2006. Of the 984,265 patients included, almost 95% resided below 2,000 ft (40.3% below 250 ft, and 54.5% at 250-1,999 ft), and 4,356 patients (0.4%) resided above 6,000 ft.

    Patients who lived at higher altitudes were younger, less likely to be covered by Medicaid, and more likely to be on peritoneal dialysis at the initiation of therapy.

    While rates of most comorbid conditions were similar across altitude groups, patients at higher altitudes had more diagnosed diabetes and hypertension, slightly less arteriosclerotic heart disease and heart failure, and few instances of reported inability to ambulate or transfer.

    There were 574,063 deaths observed, 257,955 (44.93%) of which were reported as cardiovascular. There was no meaningful association between altitude and non-cardiovascular death.

    “The fact that altitude is shown to selectively attenuate the risk of cardiovascular mortality in dialysis patients suggests that there are underlying biological mechanisms that are activated at higher altitudes to protect these patients from cardiovascular risk,” the authors wrote. “These findings need to be considered with caution, however, and residual confounding remains a possibility.”

    The inverse relationship between altitude and cardiovascular outcomes was examined in multivariable models.

    This observation was only slightly attenuated even after adjusting for a large number of patient characteristics and is consistent with previous studies that have demonstrated the protective effect of HIF [hypoxia-inducible factor]-1 activation on the cardiovascular system,” the authors wrote. “We propose that HIF-1 plays an important role in conferring a protective effect on cardiovascular outcomes in dialysis patients.”
     
  8. chocolate

    chocolate Silver

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21465908

    Endocrine aspects of high altitude acclimatization and acute mountain sickness.



    Abstract



    The acute acclimatization to high altitude is underpinned by a diuresis (and to a lesser extent a natriuresis) that facilitates a reduction in plasma volume. This allows a haemoconcentration to occur that increases the oxygen carrying capacity of a given volume of blood, a vital effect in the presence of a reduced partial pressure of oxygen. This critical acclimatization process is orchestrated by the endocrine system. This review will present the key evidence regarding the changes in several important hormones that affect this process.
     
  9. chocolate

    chocolate Silver

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21394641



    Effects of altitude exposure on brain natriuretic peptide in humans.

    Woods D, Hooper T, Hodkinson P, Ball S, Wakeford R, Peaston B, Bairsto C, Green N, Mellor A.

    Source



    Newcastle and Northumbria NHS Trust, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. DoctorDRWoods@aol.com

    Abstract



    Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is common at high altitude (HA) and associated with a relative failure of the natriuresis and diuresis that occurs at HA. The role of Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) in this context has not been thoroughly investigated. We aimed to clarify if BNP rises in response to exercise at HA and if so whether this is related to AMS. 32 healthy subjects had assessments of BNP, aldosterone and AMS scores [as assessed by the AMS-C score of the Environmental Symptom Questionnaire (ESQ) and Lake Louise questionnaire] made following exertion at sea-level (SL), 3,400, 4,300 and 5,150 m. Data were analysed in the 23 subjects who did not consume drugs known to affect acclimatization. BNP (pg/ml, mean ± SEM) was significantly higher at 5,150 m versus the lower altitudes (p < 0.001 for all): 7.1 ± 1; 6.1 ± 0.3; 6.8 ± 0.9 and 17.7 ± 5.1 at sea-level; 3,400, 4,300 and 5,150 m. In those that showed a BNP response at 5,150 m (n = 19) versus those that did not demonstrate a BNP response (n = 4) there was a significant difference in Lake Louise (LL) AMS scores at 5,150 m on day 10 of the expedition (mean LL score 3.3 vs. 0.75, p = 0.034) and day 11 (mean LL score 3.3 vs. 0, p = 0.003). This is the first report to demonstrate a significant rise in BNP at HA. A BNP response at 5,150 m may be associated with a greater likelihood of suffering AMS.
     
  10. chocolate

    chocolate Silver

    I wonder if people get up to pee because of sodium overload? That is why you pee at high altitudes. A lady at my gym isn't supposed to have sodium and I asked her if she could have sea salt and she said no. dunno
     
  11. chocolate

    chocolate Silver

    http://jap.physiology.org/content/92/4/1573.abstract?cited-by=yes&legid=jap;92/4/1573

    Changes in MCT 1, MCT 4, and LDH expression are tissue specific in rats after long-term hypobaric hypoxia

    Little is known about the effect of chronic hypobaric hypoxia on the enzymes and transporters involved in lactate metabolism. We looked at the protein expression of monocarboxylate transporters MCT 1, MCT 2, and MCT 4, along with total lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and LDH isozymes in skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and liver. Expression of these components of the lactate shuttle affects the ability to transport and oxidize lactate. We hypothesized that the expression of MCTs and LDH would increase after acclimation to high altitude (HA). The response to acclimation to HA was, however, tissue specific. In addition, the response was different in whole muscle (Mu) and mitochondria-enriched (Mi) fractions. Heart, soleus, and plantaris muscles showed the greatest response to HA. Acclimation resulted in a 34% increase in MCT 4 in heart and a decrease in MCT 1 (−47%) and MCT 4 (−47%) in plantaris Mu. In Mi fractions, the heart had an increase (+40%) and soleus a decrease (−40%) in LDH. HA also had a significant effect on the LDH isozyme composition of both the Mu and Mi fractions. Mitochondrial density was decreased in both the soleus (−17%) and plantaris (−44%) as a result of chronic hypoxia. We conclude that chronic hypoxia had a tissue-specific effect on MCTs and LDH (that form the lactate shuttle) but did not produce a consistent increase in these components in all tissues.



    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plantaris_muscle

    It is composed of a thin muscle belly and a long thin tendon. It is approximately 2-4 inches long, and is absent in 7-10% of the human population.
    It is one of the plantar flexors in the superior compartment of the leg along with the gastrocnemius, and soleus. The plantaris is considered an unimportant muscle and mainly acts with gastrocnemius.[1]





    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soleus_muscle

    In humans and some other mammals, the soleus is a powerful muscle in the back part of the lower leg (the calf). It runs from just below the knee to the heel, and is involved in standing and walking.
     
  12. Jack Kruse

    Jack Kruse Administrator

    The effect of altitude on our metabolism is pretty damn interesting......but so far my results are short lived and they change rapidly......did not expect that.
     
  13. chocolate

    chocolate Silver

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21542052

    Acetyl-L-carnitine-mediated neuroprotection during hypoxia is attributed to ERK1/2-Nrf2-regulated mitochondrial biosynthesis.

    Hota KB, Hota SK, Chaurasia OP, Singh SB.

    Source



    High Altitude Physiology Division, Defence Institute of High Altitude Research, C/o 56 APO, Leh, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    Abstract



    Neuronal damage in hypoxia and several neurodegenerative disorders is invariably associated with oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction. Administration of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) on the other hand attenuates neuronal damage, prevents apoptosis, and improves energy status in hypoxic stress through less understood mechanisms. Becasue mitochondrial biogenesis could be a possible mechanism for ALCAR-induced improvement in bioenergetics in neurons, the present study aimed at exploring signaling pathways of ALCAR-induced neuroprotection in hypoxia and possible occurrence of mitochondrial biogenesis. To create global hypoxia, adult Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a simulated altitude of 7,620 m at standard temperature and humidity conditions. We here demonstrate that administration of ALCAR to hypoxic rats for a period of 2 weeks effectively protected hippocampal neurons from mitochondrial dysfunction, excitotoxicity, and neurodegeneration. ALCAR administration resulted in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α and nuclear respiratory factor-1-induced mitochondrial biogenesis, the expression of which was regulated by an extracellular-related kinase-nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (ERK-Nrf2)-mediated mechanism. Most notably, calcium buffering into nonfunctional mitochondria ameliorated excitotoxicity and improved bioenergetic status of the hippocampal neurons. Together, the data reveal the immense therapeutic potential of ALCAR for the treatment of ischemia, stroke, and other neurodegenerative disorders associated with hypoxic stress and excitotoxicity.
     
  14. chocolate

    chocolate Silver

    http://edulife.com.br/dados%5CArtigos%5CNutricao%5CNutricao%20Esportiva%20e%20Suplementacao%5CSupplementation%20of%20L-Carnitine%20in%20Athletes.pdf



     
  15. chocolate

    chocolate Silver

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11133888

     
  16. chocolate

    chocolate Silver

    http://www.dribose.co.uk/



    Dosage: 5 grams with each meal for the first 2 weeks. Drop down to 5 grams twice a day w/meal depending on pain.



    Need to take at least 10 days to feel affect.



    **Ribose is also known to alleviate altitude sickness and PMS cramping.
     
  17. Thor

    Thor Banned

    good information - even living in Denver could effect you?....
     

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