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Discussion in 'The Epi-Paleo Diet' started by Jack Kruse, Jun 29, 2021.

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  1. Jack Kruse

    Jack Kruse Administrator

    Did you listen carefully to Cynthia Holmes's questions in the June 2021 Q & A?
    What are the implications of her questions?

    How much do you know about photosynthesis?

    Where does the oxygen in photosynthesis originate from?

    The oxygen released during photosynthesis comes from the splitting of water during the light-dependent reaction. 3. Remember, the electrons lost from the reaction center in photosystem II must be replaced. The splitting of water serves to replace these lost electrons.

    Explain the energy flow and conversion of photosynthesis:
    chloroplasts "capture" sunlight energy in two ways. Light ''excites'' electrons in pigment molecules, and light provides the energy to split water molecules, providing more electrons as well as hydrogen ions.
    Light Energy is transformed to Chemical Energy

    Describe how ATP is produced during the light-capturing reactions of photosynthesis?
    photophosphorylation is how it is done.

    Do you understand the purpose of the Calvin cycle and how it relates to photosynthesis?

    The domain of the Calvin cycle in photosynthesis is the light-independent portion of the photosynthetic process.

    ATP from photosystem II provides energy and NADPH from PS I provides a source of hydrogens and high-energy electrons needed to bind the hydrogen to carbon.

    In the Calvin Cycle, three molecules each containing 5 carbons (Ribulose bisphosphate) are joined to 3 carbon dioxide molecules to produce 6 molecules of 3-phosphoglycerate.
    This reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme rubisco.

    A series of reactions consume 6 ATP and 6 NADPH to produce 6 glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate molecules. One of these is used ultimately to produces glucose, the other five are turned back into the original ribulose bisphosphate at a cost of a further 3 ATP molecules.
  2. Jack Kruse

    Jack Kruse Administrator

    What is an autotroph?
    pine tree....An autotroph[α] ("self-feeding", from the Greek autos "self" and trophe "nourishing") or producer, is an organism that produces complex organic compounds (such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) from simple substances present in its surroundings, generally using energy from light (photosynthesis) or inorganic chemical reactions (chemosynthesis).

    What is the reaction for photosynthesis?

    In general outline and in effect, photosynthesis is the opposite of cellular mitochondrial respiration, in which glucose and other compounds are oxidized to produce carbon dioxide and water, and to release chemical energy (an exothermic reaction) to drive the organism's metabolism.

    What are the light reactions? What's their purpose?

    Light-dependent reactions
    1. Capture energy from sunlight
    2. Use the energy and H20 to make ATP and NADPH
    Light-independent reactions
    3. Use ATP and NADPH to make sugars from CO2

    What is the Calvin cycle? What is its purpose?

    The Calvin cycle is the last step in photosynthesis. The purpose of the Calvin Cycle is to take the energy from photosystem I and fix carbon. Carbon fixation means building organic molecules by adding carbon onto a chain. In order to do this, you have to start with an organic molecule, a starter molecule.

    What is chlorophyll? What ranges does it absorb light (what colors of light do they absorb)?

    Green pigments found in chloroplast, that absorb light during photosynthesis. absorbs in blue and red regions of visable spectrum. We see plants as green because green light is reflected by plants.

    Does photosynthesis vary? Is it relative to the environment we are in?


    As light water and magnetism varies so does photosynthetic yield.
  3. Jack Kruse

    Jack Kruse Administrator

    Deuterium depleted water delays tumor progression in mice, dogs, cats, and humans. Hydratase enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle control cell growth and deplete deuterium from redox cofactors, fatty acids, and DNA, which undergo hydride ion and hydrogen atom transfer reactions.

    Deuterium changes the acoustic resonance of the chemicals in the Krebs cycle. Photosynthesis controls where H+ is located in sugar molecules and where deuterium is placed. Watch this video to show how important it is. Begin at the 20:00 minute mark.

    The DDW created by mitochondria is thought to diminish the deuteration of sugar-phosphates in the DNA backbone, helping to preserve the stability of hydrogen bond networks in RNA and DNA, possibly protecting against aneuploidy and resisting strand breaks, occurring upon exposure to radiation and certain anticancer chemotherapeutics. Photosynthesis is essential to Nature's quantitive assessment program from biology. If deuterium is placed in the wrong spot in foods it changes the molecular resonance and this will alter the physiology of the Krebs cycle. In this way, you can see why DDW might help create higher Vitamin D levels and lower blood glucose for the same reason. My June 2021 Q & A answer to Cynthia mirrors this explanation. DDW is proposed here to link cancer prevention and treatment using natural ketogenic diets, low deuterium drinking water, as well as DDW production as the mitochondrial downstream mechanism of targeted anti-cancer drugs such as Avastin and Gleevec.

    Warburg proposed first that irreversible damage to respiration was the prime cause of cancer with increased glucose to lactic acid product yield even in the presence of sufficient oxygen supplies. Yet, with Warburg's passing away on August 1, 1970, and the discovery of oncogenes in 1971, cancer research shifted to view cancer as a genetic disease. The “re-discovery” of cancer as a metabolic disease linked oncogenesis with pentose cycle metabolism and gene clustering in 1998 using modern targeted 13C-glucose fate association studies for drug development.

    Nevertheless, progress is still slow and overshadowed by NIH funding of DNA research over quantum biological research of how nuclear effects can change bond vibrations to alter physiology. the molecular biological approaches unsuited to address metabolic networks and their inherently complex control properties. Massive medical and economical failures in genetically targeted kinase inhibitor drug development efforts have first been reviewed in 2005, which since became sad realities. Thus, worsening cancer statistics JUSTIFY a continued significant interest in targeting cancer as a cellular metabolic disease. the irony is that Big Pharma to this day still does not realize that sunlight is a targeted kinase inhibitor of Nature because of how visible light use in photosynthesis operates like the QA program of hydrogen movements in biological systems of metabolism.

    Submolecular mechanisms offer very precise and relatively simple reaction architectures to regulate cell growth, where hydrogen and deuterium (D) showed prominent growth regulatory effects in a study performed by Somlyai. Hydrogen and deuterium ratios in cells should now be considered primary regulators of growth signaling because of bond vibrational changes, where exceptional kinetic isotope effects and severely altered collective proton tunneling are evident by deuterium laced compounds in hydrogen bonding and bridging physical as well as biological networks.

    In biomolecules, e.g. in NADPH and DNA, the two stable isotopes of hydrogen, protium (1H) and deuterium (D) induce very different physicochemical behaviors.
    In vitro studies noted that D-depletion triggers apoptosis exerts influence on proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes and weakens the expression of genes induced by exposures to carcinogens.

    Be careful with processed foods in getting ill. Deuteration of foods not protected by the photosynthetic mechanism of sunlight leads to higher viral risks. Viral mutation rates = variants increase with deuteration. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/13752986/
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  4. Jack Kruse

    Jack Kruse Administrator

    Deuteration of synthetic estrogen hormones weakened its estrogenic properties.

    Thompson J. Biological Effects of Deuterium. Pergamon Press, Modern Trends in Physiological Sciences Division; 1963. (International Series of Monographs on Pure and Applied Biology).

    Remember that sunlight decreases estrogen levels in biology.
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  5. Jack Kruse

    Jack Kruse Administrator

    Deuterated enzymes exhibited conformational changes, affecting their active sites. Think about this considering what I said about Vitamin D in the June Q &A of 2021.Van Hook W. Kinetic isotope effects: introduction and discussion of the theory. In: Bowman CJCaNS., editor. Isotope Effects in Chemical Reactions. Van Nostrand Reinhold; New York: 1971. pp. 1–89
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  6. Jack Kruse

    Jack Kruse Administrator

    As the skin ages, it becomes enriched in deuterium along a temporal aging axis. It appears that deuterium, atomic mass, somehow alters time. Einsteins relativity is involved in deuterium biology. This confirms that time can be relative to altering levels of deuterium in foods.
    A new unifying theory for the initiation of aging mechanisms and processes.
    Griffiths TR
    Mech Ageing Dev. 1973 Oct-Nov; 2(4):295-307.
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  7. Jack Kruse

    Jack Kruse Administrator

    As D2O levels rise, reduced the life-span of mice results.
    Effect of deuterium oxide on the reproductive potential of mice.
    Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1960 Nov 25; 84():770-9.
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  8. Jack Kruse

    Jack Kruse Administrator

    DAF-16 is the orthologue of the mammalian FOXO (fork-head O), a transcription factor responsible for the activation of genes that codify antioxidant enzymes, which neutralize reactive oxygen species (ROS) from mitochondria involved in the aging process. Notably, daf-16 knockout reduces longevity (Murphy, 2006; Zhang et al., 2009) and, consequently, this pathway has been implicated in the regulation of stress resistance and lifespan (Baumeister et al., 2006; Lee et al., 2003). DAF-16 belongs to the DAF-2 insulin-like cascade, which is negatively regulated by phosphorylation.

    Phosphorylation is controlled by photosynthesis as this thread shows.
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  9. Jack Kruse

    Jack Kruse Administrator

    The signaling pathway, via the PI3K receptor DAF2 (insulin-like receptor homologue), regulates levels of 3′-phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol lipids, directing the related kinases AKT1,2 (PKB homologues) to phosphorylate the FOXO homologue, DAF-16 (Hertweck et al., 2004; Murphy, 2006; Paradis and Ruvkun, 1998). This signaling is likely mediated by activation of age1-associated protein (AAP1), the homologue of mammalian heterodimer p85–p110 (Burgering and Kops, 2002). AKT1,2 phosphorylation, in turn, phosphorylates nuclear DAF-16 and translocates it into the cytosol. Conversely, inhibition of this phosphorylation cascade causes the migration of DAF-16 to the nucleus, which binds to DAF-16 binding-element (a core sequence TTGTTTAC of the DNA), thus increasing transcriptional activation of genes with context-dependent effects on cellular stress, consequently reducing oxidative stress and slowing down the aging process (Murphy, 2006). Deuteration affects signaling in this pathway and reduces time dilation and increases the way life experiences time on Earth leading to a more rapid lived life ended soon by disease by facilitating equilibrium over a far from equilibrium state.

    The KIE of deuterium inhibits a dissipative system leading to a lack of time dilation. The implications of this? Photosynthesis and sun exposure can directly affect time dilation or contraction in living systems by adding atomic masses to biological substrates in their metabolic pathways. Deuterium affects spacetime negatively. Conversely, we should expect DDW to enhance time dilation by General and special relativity based upon these findings. Is this why higher Vitamin D levels are associated with disease and death resistance in most studies? Yes. Think about the 2016 Swedish study now I always mention in podcasts.
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  10. Jack Kruse

    Jack Kruse Administrator

  11. Jack Kruse

    Jack Kruse Administrator

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  12. Jack Kruse

    Jack Kruse Administrator

    What happens when you give worms grown with Mn enriched media while giving them DDW? Isn't this the same test Cynthia Holms did to herself based on what she told us during the June 2021 Q & A? To test this hypothesis that DDW has the ability to increase the life span, a study was done on Mn-exposed worms. It was found that the DAF-16 pathway is modulated by low D concentrations, thus supporting a role for this transcription factor as a key target for pharmacological interventions aimed at prolonging life-span.


    DDW can buy you time.

    nnEMF costs you time.

    Redox labs are the observer that measures these effects.

    Though the concentration of D in all living organisms is greater than 10 mmol/L, its biological role has yet to be defined well enough to change medicine. DO you have to wait on the centralized system for this effect? Nope. You have to trust your own level of due diligence. Photosynthesis and mitochondrial biology are both decentralized pathways in biology. Maybe you should rely on them more than you do?

    Recent studies have shown that depletion of naturally occurring D can result in tumor regression in mice, dogs, cats and humans (Kovács et al., 2011; Krempels et al., 2008; Somlyai et al., 1998a,b). The study on Mn worms also demonstrated that subnormal D concentrations reversed the Mn-induced reduction in the nematode’s life-span and modified the DAF-16 signaling cascade. This means that DDW should reduce blood glucose which is a proxy for Einstein's time relativity. In other words, sunlight gives you more time and nnEMF gives you less time on Earth. Accordingly, it appears light and atomic mass (E=mc^2) is fully capable of changing in the D/H ratio. As such this can trigger molecular processes that regulate gene expression participating in the DAF-16/FOXO cascade altering the General and special relativity of hydrogen movements in DNA and mtDNA and in mitochondria.

    Lesson over.
  13. Jack Kruse

    Jack Kruse Administrator

    What are chemical catalysts fundamentally in photosynthesis and mitochondria?

    Catalysts' main effect is to alter time relativity in chemical reactions.

    The theoretical underpinning for relativistic effects arises from the confluence of quantum mechanics and special relativity for catalysts.

    Catalysts are compounds that accelerate the rate of a reaction. Catalysts accelerate reactions by reducing the energy of the rate-limiting transition state. Catalysts do not affect the equilibrium state of a reaction.

    Gold as a catalyst has these effects as does deuterium, but for different reasons. The deuterium effect is a nuclear effect and the Gold effect as a catalyst is lined to electron orbital further from the nucleus. EXPLAIN.

    Schrodinger’s equation, unveiled in 1926, correctly predicts the atomic orbital energy levels for hydrogen but is unable to account for the fine structure of the hydrogen atomic spectrum, in which the bands are split. Although accounting for spin as a perturbation of the Schro ̈dinger equation corrects for this, in systems in which electrons move at speeds approaching the speed of light (c) a more general relativistic consideration is required because as electrons slow down they gain more mass. The Gold atom does

    In 1928 Dirac developed a new equation taking special relativity into account, thereby permitting solutions to systems in which electrons move at significant velocities. The term ‘relativistic effects’ therefore refers to any phenomenon resulting from the need to consider velocity as significant relative to the speed of light.

    There are 3 major phenomena that result from these relativistic effects

    Consider the gold atom and it varies electron orbitals energy and sizes.......because of relativity.

    In situations in which c (light) is considered to be (gold) atomic # 137, the mass of an electron will increase considerably as we go away from the atomic nucleus of gold. Why?

    Because the Bohr radius of an electron orbiting a nucleus is inversely proportional to the mass of the electron, this increase in mass corresponds to a decrease in radius. This is why time and rods shorten and lengthen in relativity experiments. This relativistic contraction of the 1s orbital also applies to all other "s and p electron orbitals in gold further from the nucleus. Thus, the electrons are closer to the nucleus and have greater ionization energies than the electrons further from the nucleus.

    Another manifestation of these relativistic effects is indirect; electrons occupying the d and f orbitals are better shielded by the electrons in the contracted s and p orbitals and therefore see a weaker nuclear attraction. The third effect of a relativistic treatment is spin–orbit coupling, which accounts for the fine splitting in the hydrogen atomic spectrum

    Practically speaking, this contraction in electron orbits is only significant for elements in which the 4f and 5d orbitals are filled. Gold is one of those elements. This is why gold salts helped people with autoimmune arthritis in medicines past. It is also why bicarbonate helps in Auto Immune conditions. These are effects that are quantum mechanical and collide with General and special relativity at the subatomic level. Bicarb deuterium depletes water and changes the bond vibrations inside a mitochondrion to alter the fabric of spacetime you experience in your mitochondria and in your cells of different tissues.
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  14. Jack Kruse

    Jack Kruse Administrator

    These relativistic effects also explain why gold is yellow and silver is grey.

    The yellow of gold absorbs more blue light from the visible spectrum. This is another reason why gold salts have been helpful in Rheumatoid arthritis. Most AI diseases are made worse by blue light exposure.

    Among the experimental observations conventionally explained by relativistic effects is the color of Au. The golden color is due to the excitation of the 5d electrons to the Fermi level, which occurs with a bandgap of 2.38 eV; blue visible light is therefore absorbed by the gold and it appears to glisten the complementary color of blue. In silver, by contrast, the bandgap is much larger and no visible light is absorbed so silver gives off its grey luster.
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  15. Jack Kruse

    Jack Kruse Administrator

    Be careful with processed foods in getting ill. Deuteration of foods not protected by the photosynthetic mechanism of sunlight leads to higher viral risks. Viral mutation rates = variants increase with deuteration. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/13752986/
    Sean Waters and JanSz like this.
  16. Jack Kruse

    Jack Kruse Administrator

    Calculated relativistic contraction of the 6s orbital has been done on most elements. The relativistic and non-relativistic 6s orbital radii were determined and notably, Pt, Au, and Hg are markedly influenced.

    It may, at first sight, seem strange that concepts developed by Albert Einstein in the first decade of the 20th century to explain the structure and dynamics of the cosmos should have any relevance to chemistry. However, it is now quite clear that the chemical behavior of the heavier elements, in particular, is dominated by what are termed “relativistic effects” = The theoretical underpinning for relativistic effects arises from the confluence of quantum mechanics and special relativity for catalysts.

    Lead has this effect too.

    Lead has relativistic effects too: these effects account for 1.7–1.8 V in a standard 2-V lead-acid battery cell. This implies, “cars start due to relativity”

    The Schrödinger wave equation, describing subatomic particle motion, which we were taught to believe contained in principle the understanding of all chemistry, has in fact one major defect: it does not treat space and time as equivalent, as required by Einstein’s Theory of Special Relativity. P. A. M. Dirac and, independently, the Dutch physicist, H. A. Kramers, therefore devised a relativistic analog of the Schrödinger equation, which incidentally predicted the existence of the positive electron (positron), and accounted for the occurrence of electrons having opposite “spins”. The difference which the relativistic correction made to the energetic description of the hydrogen atom was however very small, and it was therefore concluded that the chemical consequences were insignificant; but what was overlooked was the fact that, as the positive charge on the nucleus increases, the orbiting electrons must move faster in order to overcome the greater electrostatic attraction and hence to maintain their position. When the nuclear charge is about 50 (at the element tin), electrons in the 1s orbital are moving at about 60 percent of the speed of light, and their mass is increased

    Relativistic contraction of the 6s electron level is a function of nuclear charge changes.

    As the 6s orbital, contracts, it lowers in energy, while the 5d levels are raised in energy because the orbitals have expanded.

    It is now generally thought that the relativistic contraction is at least as significant, if not more so, than the lanthanide contraction for the 5d metals, and that it is a dominant factor in the chemistry of elements having nuclear charge greater than 80 (mercury).
    We can understand why the electron configuration of palladium is 4d 10 while that of platinum is 5d^9 6s ^1, and why osmium and iridium have the 6s^ 2 configurations while ruthenium and rhodium are 5s ^1 (because the lower energy levels are filled up first). It also follows that the 5d metals have higher ionization potentials than the 4d (because the 6s level is of lower energy) and that they should have the greater bond strengths, with atoms both of different type and of the same type, as shown by the sublimation enthalpies and melting temperatures.
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  17. Jack Kruse

    Jack Kruse Administrator

    Today's PSA: be careful who packs your parachute. What does photosynthesis do? It takes CO2 + H20 with sunlight = sugar. Its first step charge separates water to create two free electrons. What do mitochondria do? They take glucose and break it down to CO2 and water while delivering electrons to oxygen. So you can see here that mitochondrial respiration reverses the process of photosynthesis. All foods are tied to photosynthetic reactions. So what happens when your mitochondria have poor redox? You cannot reverse engineer photosynthesis = low CO2, low DDW, and higher blood glucose. You cannot use blood glucose because your engines are broken. So when somebody tells you carbohydrates are an essential part of your diet and says it axiomatically, you better find somebody better who can pack your parachute. You might get hurt in that fall. PS: All nnEMF also increases blood glucose. See Allen Frey and Nora Volkow papers. Thanks for listening to today's PSA on parachute packing.
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