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CT 4 confimed? "Cold Origin of Life?" (2017)

Discussion in 'Cold Thermogenesis' started by KalosKaiAgathos, Mar 5, 2018.

  1. KalosKaiAgathos

    KalosKaiAgathos New Member

    Abstract
    Psychrophiles thrive permanently in the various cold environments on Earth. Their unsuspected ability to remain metabolically active in the most extreme low temperature conditions provides insights into a possible cold step in the origin of life. More specifically, metabolically active psychrophilic bacteria have been observed at −20 °C in the ice eutectic phase (i.e., the liquid veins between sea ice crystals). In the context of the RNA world hypothesis, this ice eutectic phase would have provided stability to the RNA molecules and confinement of the molecules in order to react and replicate. This aspect has been convincingly tested by laboratory experiments.

    See: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5492147/
     
    WalterNL and Lahelada like this.
  2. KalosKaiAgathos

    KalosKaiAgathos New Member

    Second one:


    The Possible Emergence of Life and Differentiation of a Shallow Biosphere on Irradiated Icy Worlds: The Example of Europa

    Irradiated ice-covered ocean worlds with rocky mafic mantles may provide the conditions needed to drive the emergence and maintenance of life. Alkaline hydrothermal springs—relieving the geophysical, thermal, and chemical disequilibria between oceans and tidally stressed crusts—could generate inorganic barriers to the otherwise uncontrolled and kinetically disfavored oxidation of hydrothermal hydrogen and methane. Ionic gradients imposed across these inorganic barriers, comprising iron oxyhydroxides and sulfides, could drive the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide and the oxidation of methane through thermodynamically favorable metabolic pathways leading to early life-forms. In such chemostatic environments, fuels may eventually outweigh oxidants. Ice-covered oceans are primarily heated from below, creating convection that could transport putative microbial cells and cellular cooperatives upward to congregate beneath an ice shell, potentially giving rise to a highly focused shallow biosphere. It is here where electron acceptors, ultimately derived from the irradiated surface, could be delivered to such life-forms through exchange with the icy surface. Such zones would act as “electron disposal units” for the biosphere, and occupants might be transferred toward the surface by buoyant diapirs and even entrained into plumes. Key Words: Biofilms—Europa—Extraterrestrial life—Hydrothermal systems. Astrobiology 17, 1265–1273.


    See: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5729856/
     
    Lahelada likes this.
  3. KalosKaiAgathos

    KalosKaiAgathos New Member

    The "cold life" hypothesis was also in CT1 btw
     
  4. Jack Kruse

    Jack Kruse Administrator

  5. KalosKaiAgathos

    KalosKaiAgathos New Member

    How might CT be possible without increasing stress?

    See: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3725077/

    Quote:

    "Classic brown fat and inducible beige fat both dissipate chemical energy in the form of heat through the actions of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1. This nonshivering thermogenesis is crucial for mammals as a defense against cold and obesity/diabetes. Cold is known to act indirectly through the sympathetic nervous systems and β-adrenergic signaling, but here we report that cool temperature (27–33 °C) can directly activate a thermogenic gene program in adipocytes in a cell-autonomous manner. White and beige fat cells respond to cool temperatures, but classic brown fat cells do not. Importantly, this activation in isolated cells is independent of the canonical cAMP/Protein Kinase A/cAMP response element-binding protein pathway downstream of the β-adrenergic receptors. These findings provide an unusual insight into the role of adipose tissues in thermoregulation, as well as an alternative way to target nonshivering thermogenesis for treatment of obesity and metabolic diseases."

    Deep CT vs Regular CT...
     
  6. KalosKaiAgathos

    KalosKaiAgathos New Member

    Another one: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19737029

    I've underlined the important pieces:

    ABSTRACT


    OBJECTIVE:
    Considering the adverse effects of exercise-induced cortisol secretion on health in athletes, it is important to determine the environmental and individual factors that contribute to the variations in exercise-induced cortisol secretion. In this study, the effects of cold environment exposure and cold acclimatization on exercise-induced salivary cortisol responses were investigated.

    METHODS:
    Short track skaters (n = 11), who usually practice under cold conditions, and inline skaters (n = 11), who usually practice under room temperature conditions, participated in a randomized crossover study. All participants cycled for 60 minutes at 65% Vo2 max under cold (ambient temperature: 5 +/- 1 degrees C, relative humidity 41% +/- 9%) and room temperature (ambient temperature: 21 +/- 1 degrees C, relative humidity 35% +/- 5%) conditions. The participants had a 120-minute bed rest recovery phase at room temperature after both exercise bouts. Cortisol levels were measured in saliva samples collected pre-exercise and postexercise at 1 minute, 30 minutes, 60 minutes, and 120 minutes.

    RESULTS:
    Both short track and inline skaters exhibited clear cortisol responses to exercise under cold and room temperature conditions. The magnitude of the cortisol response, however, was different between skaters and conditions. The inline skaters exhibited significantly higher cortisol values under cold conditions than under room temperature conditions (7.6 nmol/L and 4.2 nmol/L, respectively). However, the short track skaters exhibited significantly higher cortisol values under cold conditions compared to room temperature conditions (8.7 nmol/L and 5.4 nmol/L, respectively).

    CONCLUSIONS:
    The effects of cold environment exposure on exercise-induced cortisol response were different between skaters who usually practice under cold or room temperature conditions. These results can be interpreted as acclimatization to either cold or room temperature conditions attenuating the cortisol response, suggesting that acclimatization may be beneficial in reducing the exercise-induced cortisol response.

    -----------------------

    This probably means that the human body will has less and less on cortisol response when becoming cold adapted.
     
  7. Jack Kruse

    Jack Kruse Administrator

    Cortisol is increased prior to sunrise and being out in the sun in the AM lowers it.......if you just got the message to exercise outside, grounded, your cortisol issues would vanish. That does not happen because most meatheads are indoors in blue-lit gyms.
     
  8. KalosKaiAgathos

    KalosKaiAgathos New Member

    Even more shocking (2017):

    (highlights are again added by me).

    Four-week cold acclimation in adult humans shifts uncoupling thermogenesis from skeletal muscles to brown adipose tissue.
    Muscle-derived thermogenesis during acute cold exposure in humans consists of a combination of cold-induced increases in skeletal muscle proton leak and shivering. Daily cold exposure results in an increase in brown adipose tissue oxidative capacity coupled with a decrease in the cold-induced skeletal muscle proton leak and shivering intensity. Improved coupling between electromyography-determined muscle activity and whole-body heat production following cold acclimation suggests a maintenance of ATPase-dependent thermogenesis and decrease in skeletal muscle ATPase independent thermogenesis. Although daily cold exposure did not change the fibre composition of the vastus lateralis, the fibre composition was a strong predictor of the shivering pattern evoked during acute cold exposure.

    ABSTRACT:

    We previously showed that 4 weeks of daily cold exposure in humans can increase brown adipose tissue (BAT) volume by 45% and oxidative metabolism by 182%. Surprisingly, we did not find a reciprocal reduction in shivering intensity when exposed to a mild cold (18°C). The present study aimed to determine whether changes in skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism or shivering activity could account for these unexpected findings. Nine men participated in a 4 week cold acclimation intervention (10°C water circulating in liquid-conditioned suit, 2 h day-1 , 5 days week-1 ). Shivering intensity and pattern were measured continuously during controlled cold exposure (150 min at 4 °C) before and after the acclimation. Muscle biopsies from the m. vastus lateralis were obtained to measure oxygen consumption rate and proton leak of permeabilized muscle fibres. Cold acclimation elicited a modest 21% (P < 0.05) decrease in whole-body and m. vastus lateralis shivering intensity. Furthermore, cold acclimation abolished the acute cold-induced increase in proton leak. Although daily cold exposure did not change the fibre composition of the m. vastus lateralis, fibre composition was a strong predictor of the shivering pattern evoked during acute cold. We conclude that muscle-derived thermogenesis during acute cold exposure in humans is not only limited to shivering, but also includes cold-induced increases in proton leak. The efficiency of muscle oxidative phosphorylation improves with cold acclimation, suggesting that reduced muscle thermogenesis occurs through decreased proton leak, in addition to decreased shivering intensity as BAT capacity and activity increase. These changes occur with no net difference in whole-body thermogenesis.

    See: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28025824


    Science on cold thermogenesis is catching up on the role of fundamental particles of physics on biology.

    Tensegrity 9:
    "This is why ice expands when water cools. It also points out why cold thermogenesisworks fundamentally because cold increase heat release from mitochondria naturally. This makes you more energy efficient"

    and:

    "As electron current flow slows, the resultant magnetic field generated within the mitochondria also shrinks. This loss of magnetism is also felt big time in the FAD moiety 3D molecular arrangement. When ECT slows it needs the higher powered photon to set the stage to make superoxide. Eukaryotic “magnetic sense” is built directly into their mitochondria everywhere mitochondria are found in tissues. This means any free radicals you do make, can be used for signaling that is yoked, fine tuned and coupled properly to physiologic functioning. When superoxide is missing, cell signaling declines, which destroys its metastability. If a cell is not metastable it can not read or react the environment it is in. A cell needs to be metastable to entangle electrons and protons in their mitochondria. That is what classic leptin resistance is at its core."

    Link: https://www.jackkruse.com/tensegrity-9-magnetic-mitochondria-memory-creates-coherence/

     
  9. KalosKaiAgathos

    KalosKaiAgathos New Member

    Damn, another one.

    (emphasis mine).

    Dynamic changes in the mitochondrial electron transport chain underpinning cold acclimation of leaf respiration.

    We examined the effect of short- and long-term changes in temperature on gene expression, protein abundance, and the activity of the alternative oxidase and cytochrome oxidase pathways (AOP and COP, respectively) in Arabidopsis thaliana. The AOP was more sensitive to short-term changes in temperature than the COP, with partitioning to the AOP decreasing significantly below a threshold temperature of 20 degrees C. AOP activity was increased in leaves, which had been shifted to the cold for several days, but this response was transient, with AOP activity subsiding (and COP activity increasing) following the development of leaves in the cold. The transient increase in AOP activity in 10-d cold-shifted leaves was not associated with an increase in alternative oxidase (AOX) protein or AOX1a transcript abundance. By contrast, the amount of uncoupling protein was significantly increased in cold-developed leaves. In conjunction with this, transcript levels of the uncoupling protein-encoding gene UCP1 and the external NAD(P)H dehydrogenase-encoding gene NDB2 exhibited sustained increases following growth in the cold. The data suggest a role for each of these alternative non-phosphorylating bypasses of mitochondrialelectrontransport at different points in time following exposure to cold, with increased AOP activity being important only in the early stages of coldtreatment.

    --------------------------------------------------------------------

    Why is the response "transient"?! Maybe because the biophysical effects ends once the cold is removed. Again, an indication that cold is not just biochemical but has physical consequences as well.


    Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed...rpinning+cold+acclimation+of+leaf+respiration
     
    Jason Coates likes this.
  10. Jack Kruse

    Jack Kruse Administrator

    Transient because of the D/H ratio.......remember heat affects H bonding in a big way.
     
    Jason Coates likes this.
  11. KalosKaiAgathos

    KalosKaiAgathos New Member

    Another one (emphasis mine):

    Quantum Dynamics of Self-Assembly of Minimal Photosynthetic Cells
    The dynamics of quantum mechanical self-assembly of two separate supramolecular systems, i.e., two minimal cells each containing two different photosynthetic centres (1) and (2) were investigated by means of semiempirical and density functional theory methods (DFT) using the electron correlation approach.
    These two bi cellular systems consist of 717 atoms (3) or 696 atoms (4). The minimal cells studied were based on different photoactive sensitizer molecules, precursor of a fatty acid molecule (pFA) attached via Van der Waals forces, all surrounded by fatty acid (FA) and water molecules. The electron correlation interactions responsible for the weak hydrogen and Van der Waals chemical bonds increased due to the addition of polar water solvent molecules. The distances between the separated sensitizer, FA, pFA, and water molecules are comparable to Van der Waals and hydrogen bonding radii. As a result, the overall systems become compressed, resulting in photo-excited electron tunnelling from the sensitizer (bis(4-diphenylamine-2-phenyl)-squarine or 1,4-bis(N,N-dimethylamino)naphthalene) to the pFA molecules. Absorption spectra as well as quantum entangled electron density transfer trajectories associated with the different excited states were calculated using time dependent density functional theory methods (TD-DFT). The results allow separation of the photosynthetic transitions within the same minimal cells (1) and (2). Presence of photosynthesis in nature and in our artificial cells quantum mechanical investigations is questionlessly the most important biochemical reaction on Earth and probably most the important in the emergence of life in the Isua Greenstone Belt in Greenland aged 3.7–3.85 billion years. We address the idea that quantum entanglement could have played an important role in the first stages of origins of life and evolution of biospheres because it enhances the photosynthesis, leading to faster growth and self-replication of minimal living cells. The quantum mechanically modelled possibility of synthesizing artificial self-reproducing quantum entangled prebiotic minimal cells also impacts the possibility of the most probable path of emergence of protocells on the Earth or elsewhere.

    Source:

    http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/asp/qm/2016/00000005/00000001/art00002
     
  12. JanSz

    JanSz Gold

    More AM sun please.
    upload_2018-5-13_13-11-39.png
     
    Jason Coates likes this.
  13. KalosKaiAgathos

    KalosKaiAgathos New Member

    Another paper on the origins of life, which contradicts the earlier assertion in the first post of this thread.

    Mind-boggling paper. I'm not emphasizing, because every line in this abstract is so interesting:

    Cause of Cambrian Explosion - Terrestrial or Cosmic?
    We review the salient evidence consistent with or predicted by the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe (H-W) thesis of Cometary (Cosmic) Biology. Much of this physical and biological evidence is multifactorial. One particular focus are the recent studies which date the emergence of the complex retroviruses of vertebrate lines at or just before the Cambrian Explosion of ∼500 Ma. Such viruses are known to be plausibly associated with major evolutionary genomic processes. We believe this coincidence is not fortuitous but is consistent with a key prediction of H-W theory whereby major extinction-diversification evolutionary boundaries coincide with virus-bearing cometary-bolide bombardment events. A second focus is the remarkable evolution of intelligent complexity (Cephalopods) culminating in the emergence of the Octopus. A third focus concerns the micro-organism fossil evidence contained within meteorites as well as the detection in the upper atmosphere of apparent incoming life-bearing particles from space. In our view the totality of the multifactorial data and critical analyses assembled by Fred Hoyle, Chandra Wickramasinghe and their many colleagues since the 1960s leads to a very plausible conclusion - life may have been seeded here on Earth by life-bearing comets as soon as conditions on Earth allowed it to flourish (about or just before 4.1 Billion years ago); and living organisms such as space-resistant and space-hardy bacteria, viruses, more complex eukaryotic cells, fertilised ova and seeds have been continuously delivered ever since to Earth so being one important driver of further terrestrial evolution which has resulted in considerable genetic diversity and which has led to the emergence of mankind.

    Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29544820

    Full text: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0079610718300798?via=ihub
     
  14. Jack Kruse

    Jack Kruse Administrator

    ^^^^viral marketing blog.

    I just told Matt this week that endosymbiosis was a bacteria and a virus and not as Nick Lane says
     

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