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1900 links for PBM studies

Discussion in 'Redox Rx' started by Jack Kruse, Dec 2, 2021.

  1. Daulatwant

    Daulatwant Kipras

    Not sure if this is related. After drowning my room in red light and blocking any light from the outside. After a few weeks I saw a lot more green everywhere else.
    8Phoenix likes this.
  2. A Potential Role for Photobiomodulation (PBM) Therapy in Disease Treatment and Prevention in the Era of COVID-19

    The main target of PBM is considered to be the electron transport chain of the mitochondria, in particular complex IV, cytochrome-C-oxidase, which acts as a chromophore, absorbing red and near infrared light.

    The most effective wavelength for delivery of PBM in immune modulation is likely to be in the red and near-infrared range, based on the cytochrome-C-oxidase and porphyrin absorption peaks being centred at 640 nm and HbO2 at 900nm. The energy required for effective PBM is low, in the range of 1 to 16 joules/cm2.

    The immuno-modulatory effect of PBM on cytokines regulation and the complement cascade occurs via the POMC pathway, involving regulation of the hypothalamic pituitary axis through the direct modulation of the POMC/melanocortin signalling pathway including a-MSH, a potent anti-inflammatory molecule. The POMC pathway is regulated by PBM, which in turn modulates both ACTH and β-opioid, as well as, interestingly, ACE activity

    Reducing over-accumulation of neutrophils is a major mechanism for the effect of PBM in reducing acute lung inflammation. This is crucial in preventing the cytokine storm cascade in autoimmune diseases. PBM also modulates the ratio of M1 and M2 macrophage phenotypes, reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and increasing anti-inflammatory cytokines and thus balance the inflammatory process.

    In immunological cells, PBM induces production of reactive oxygen species, NO or interleukins most often, leading to an anti-inflammatory effect.

    PBM has been shown to restore the balance between pro and antioxidant mediators by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α) and increasing anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10).

    What is interest in the use of transcranial PBM to address many symptoms of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Transcranial devices have been shown to modulate neural oscillations, improve cognition in healthy adults, improve cognitive performance of people with TBIs and improve symptoms of depression. We have demonstrated a positive effect of PBM therapy in improvement of cognition scores in individuals with Parkinson’s disease (manuscript in preparation).
  3. Congrads !

    The retinal pathway of photobiomodulation therapy is being studied.
    Cytochrome C oxidase is regarded as the dominant molecular group in cells and it absorbs photon energy and triggers the effect of photobiomodulation.

    Using a confocal microscope, scientists at the Li’s lab found that it is the massless form of light beamed into the microlenses which transformed their mitochondrial bundles.


    Specifically, during the months that the ground squirrel hibernates, its mitochondrial bundles become disorderly and compressed.
    This has been known since 1933, now called the Stiles-Crawford effect.

    Microlenses - https://forum.jackkruse.com/index.php?threads/topologic-insulators-and-the-living-system.24087/#post-318603

    In healthy ageing, rod function appears to improve by 12 months with 670 nm light. The scotopic thresholds also increased by 12 months. The rod-recovery time decreased.

    However, the combined wavelengths of 670 nm and 790 nm (red and infra-red) simultaneously in eyes performed complimentarily better.
    Scotopic vision uses only rods to see, meaning that objects are visible, but appear in black and white, whereas photopic vision uses cones and provides color.
    Mesopic vision is the combination of the two and is used for most scenarios.
    Photopic vision typically dominates under normal lighting conditions, for instance during daytime.
    It is based on three types of cones which are sensitive to short, middle, and long wavelength ranges, which generally appear blue, green and red, respectively to the human eye.

    Bottomline - The therapy you have applied has improve your color vision.

    Dr. @Jack Kruse says, "The combination of red light combined with blue light over several hours, as it is in the sun's terrestrial light, has massive cholinergic effects on cells because of how it stimulates fibroblasts to function better."

    Last edited: Jan 5, 2023
  4. Does an active sun exposure habit lower the risk of venous thrombotic events? A D-lightful hypothesis

    This was a cohort study comprising 40,000 women (1000 per year of age from 25 to 64 years) who were drawn from the southern Swedish population registry for 1990 and followed for a mean of 11 years. Swedish women who sunbathed during the summer, on winter vacations, or when abroad, or used a tanning bed, were at 30% lower risk of VTE than those who did not.


    Figure 1 above. Number of women with venous thromboembolism (VTE) and mean hours of sunlight per month by season.


    Table 2 above. Sunbathing habits and risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE)
    Note: Which is more effective: Sunbathing outdoors or "sun beds"?
  5. Dr. @Jack Kruse - for your review

    Photobiomodulation promotes repair following spinal cord injury by restoring neuronal mitochondrial bioenergetics via AMPK/PGC-1α/TFAM pathway

    Insufficient neuronal mitochondrial bioenergetics supply occurs after spinal cord injury (SCI), leading to neuronal apoptosis and impaired motor function. Previous reports have shown that photobiomodulation (PBM) could reduce neuronal apoptosis and promote functional recovery, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether PBM improved prognosis by promoting neuronal mitochondrial bioenergetics after SCI.

    PBM promoted the recovery of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex activity, increased ATP production, alleviated neuronal apoptosis and reversed motor dysfunction after SCI. The activation of the AMPK/PGC-1α/TFAM pathway after SCI were facilitated by PBM but inhibited by Compound C. Equally important, PBM could inhibit OGD-induced VSC4.1 cell apoptosis by increasing ATP production whereas these changes could be abolished by Compound C.

    Conclusion: PBM activated AMPK/PGC-1α/TFAM pathway to restore mitochondrial bioenergetics and exerted neuroprotective effects after SCI.


    FIGURE 3 above. PBM promoted an increase in mitochondrial bioenergetics at 14 dpi.
    (A): Representative images of neuronal mitochondria in each group by TEM. Qualitative analysis of the proportion of elongated (>2 μm in size) mitochondria. Representative mitochondria are indicated by red arrows. Upper panel scale bar: 2 μm. Lower panel scale bar: 1 μm n = 5.

    (B): Representative confocal images of mitochondria stained with Tom20 (red) at 14 dpi. Nuclei were stained with DAPI (blue). Images were separated, thresholded, filtered and binarized with ImageJ. Continuous mitochondrial structures were calculated as the percentage of the area of large particles normalized to the total mitochondrial particles area, Scale bar: 10 µm, n = 5.

    (C): Western blot analysis and quantification of the expression levels of Complex I–V in each group, n = 3.

    (D): Result of ATP levels in each group, n = 4.

    Mitochondrial respiratory complex proteins mediate the process of oxidative phosphorylation and ATP production.

    Our results showed that downregulation of Complex I–V expression could be recovered by PBM intervention (Figure 3C). Finally, detection of ATP indicated that PBM could increase ATP production after SCI (Figure 3D).
    JanSz likes this.
  6. Can a skin type II Caucasian adults (21–59 yr) meet their minimum (600 IU/day) vitamin D requirements by the sun?

    Solar UV doses of adult Americans and vitamin D3 production

    Background: Sunlight contains UV radiation that affects human health and beneficial (vitamin D3) ways. An evaluation of the vitamin D status of adult Americans (22–40, 41–59, 60+ yr) show many have deficient or insufficient serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, indicating they are not getting enough from dietary sources or sunlight. Those findings are in conflict with calculated values from the American Academy of Dermatology who insist people make “ample” vitamin D3 (≥1,000 IU/day) from their “casual,” or everyday, outdoor UV exposures even if they use sunscreens with sun protection factor 15.

    Objective: We investigated this situation using the everyday outdoor UV doses of indoor-working adult Americans (~7,000) in the north (45°N) and south (35°N) to calculate how much vitamin D3 they produce each season with and without vacationing.

    Results: Only during the summer can skin type II Caucasian adults (21–59 yr) meet their minimum (600 IU/day) vitamin D3 needs from everyday exposures, but only if they do not wear professional clothes or sunscreens (except beach vacations).

    Method: To do vitamin D3 calculations properly, we used action spectrum and geometric conversion factors, not previously incorporated into other calculations.

    Conclusions: Most adult Americans do not go outside enough to meet their minimum or optimum (≥1,200 IU/day) vitamin D3 needs all year. The darker skin types (III–VI) and the oldest people (>59 yr) are at the highest risk for not making enough vitamin D3 during the year from everyday outdoor exposures even with a 2–3 week summer vacation.

  7. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs)

    The past 30 years has witnessed a remarkable growth of lightemitting diodes based on organic materials, which are commonly referred to as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Introduced by Tang and VanSlyke as a “novel electroluminescent device” wherein a multilayer structure of organic thin films is sandwiched.

    Power dissipation spectra versus normalized in-plane wavevector (u)


    b) Optical field distributions showing the effect of the high-index TiO2 layer and the low-index hole-injection layer (HIL)


    Diagram showing the device structure and trans-scale simulation scheme for an OLED coupled with an external scattering layer. The light delivered to a thick substrate is calculated based on CPS model. Then, the propagation within the scattering layer is described with a set of equations based on the radiation transfer theory, which is founded upon ray optics and the statistical nature of scattering process. Sweep parameters used for global optimization are also indicated. Here, g and S refer to the asymmetry parameter and the scatterance of the scattering layer, respectively.


    OLED-based wearable healthcare devices may play a significant role beyond display and lighting applications.​

  8. JanSz

    JanSz Gold

    How the 600 IU/day was developed and how and what to measure to figure its status in the body?
    I measure my vitamin D in two ways.
    In LabCorp measuring:
    Vitamin D, 25-Hydroxy Test Number: 081950 CPT: 82306
    The results indicate that my vitamin D grossly exceeds upper laboratory range.

    The other is by using Spectracell, where they claim to find my functional levels.
    There I am barely finding that I am meeting functional levels and that happen only on some of the tests.
    John Schumacher likes this.
  9. Professor Glen Jeffery (UCL Institute of Ophthalmology) writes in the UCL News ->
    • Morning exposure to deep red light improves declining eyesight.

    Professor Glen Jeffery (UCL Institute of Ophthalmology), said: “We demonstrate that one single exposure to long wave deep red light in the morning can significantly improve declining vision, which is a major health and wellbeing issue, affecting millions of people globally.

    On average there was a ‘significant’ 17% improvement in colour vision, which lasted a week in tested participants; in some older participants there was a 20% improvement, also lasting a week.

    “And morning exposure is absolutely key to achieving improvements in declining vision: as we have previously seen in flies, mitochondria have shifting work patterns and do not respond in the same way to light in the afternoon – this study confirms this.”


    Dr Pardis Kaynezhad (UCL Institute of Ophthalmology) holds a deep red light over her eye, which helps stimulate the mitochondria in her retinal cells.​

    Weeklong improved colour contrasts sensitivity after single 670 nm exposures associated with enhanced mitochondrial function

    Recently, repeated 670nm exposures have been used on the aged human retina, which has high-energy demands and significant mitochondrial and functional decline, to improve vision. We show here that single 3 min 670 nm exposures, at much lower energies than previously used, are sufficient to significantly improve for 1 week cone mediated colour contrast thresholds (detection) in ageing populations (37–70 years) to levels associated with younger subjects. But light needs to be delivered at specific times. In environments with artificial lighting humans are rarely dark-adapted, hence cone function becomes critical.

    Time of exposure is critical, as 670 nm light is only effective in the morning. This time dependent effect is likely due to the demonstrated shift in mitochondrial function across the day, and light exposure is likely only effective when synchronised to an aspect of this process. The mitochondrial biology behind shift over the day includes variation in complex activity and ATP production. Here the differential impact of 670 nm has been mapped in fly. Within the mornings when mitochondrial function can be improved, there are times when mitochondria appear to be particularly sensitive.

    Subjects across a comparable age range with exposure to 670 nm light in the afternoon were tested 3 h later. The results showed no impact across either colour axis following afternoon light exposure. Hence only the morning light dose effective.
    Last edited: Mar 25, 2023 at 12:10 PM

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