1. Registering for the Forum

    We require a human profile pic upon registration on this forum.

    After registration is submitted, you will receive a confirmation email, which should contain a link to confirm your intent to register for the forum. At this point, you will not yet be registered on the forum.

    Our Support staff will manually approve your account within 24 hours, and you will get a notification. This is to prevent the many spam account signups which we receive on a daily basis.

    If you have any problems completing this registration, please email support@jackkruse.com and we will assist you.

1900 links for PBM studies

Discussion in 'Redox Rx' started by Jack Kruse, Dec 2, 2021.

  1. Since we know -> The liver is a key player in the role of lipid metabolism.

    ULK1 promotes mitophagy via phosphorylation and stabilization of BNip3
    UNC51-like kinase-1 (ULK1) is the catalytic component of the autophagy pre-initiation complex that stimulates autophagy via phosphorylation of ATG14, BECLN1 and other autophagy proteins.

    ULK1 promotes BNIP3 protein stability by preventing its proteasomal degradation

    Diagram summarizing the model for how ULK1 promotes BNIP3-dependent mitophagy—by both blocking its proteasomal turnover and phosphorylating BNIP3 to promote interaction with LC3B.​
    Ok so, we know BNip3 is a main player in the regulation of lipid metabolism in the liver and that ULK1 promote mitophagy stabilizing BNip3.

    Question -> What can we do to improve these mitochondrial functions?

    There maybe two potential answers:
    • Phytochemicals
    • Photobiomodulation
    Let's start with phytochemicals. Phytochemicals derived from natural plants are often used to prevent and/or treat metabolic disorders due to their unique therapeutic properties and safety (Bacanli et al., 2019). Plentiful medicinal and non-medicinal natural plants have been used to treat diseases from time immemorial in the world on account of the accessibility and low cost. Studies have shown that phytochemicals such as akebia saponin D, quercetin, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, corilagin, notoginsenoside R1, scutellarin, salvianolic acid B, resveratrol and curcumin show protective effects against metabolic diseases, and their plant origins, effects and molecular mechanisms on metabolic diseases are provided in Table 1 ->





    Phytochemical activates mitophagy to treat metabolic disorders. Phytochemical activates PINK1-Parkin-dependent mitophagy and BNIP3/NIX-dependent mitophagy to treat metabolic disorders. In PINK1-Parkin-dependent mitophagy, PINK1 phosphorylates Ser65 in the ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like domain of Parkin and further facilitates its localization from the cytosol to the outer mitochondrial membrane of dysfunctional mitochondria. Moreover, Parkin can further promote the ubiquitination of MFN1, MFN2, TOM20 and VDAC, which can be identified by autophagy receptors p62 and then bind to LC3 positive autophagosomes to promote dysfunctional mitochondria to be captured by autophagosomes. Additionally, BNIP3 and NIX are easier to bind to Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL than Beclin1, which causes the release of Beclin-1 from Beclin1-Bcl-2-Bcl-XL complexes and subsequently induces mitophagy.


    Ok so, we got a list of phytochemicals which can help with liver fatty acid metabolism.

    Question: What treatments would a quantum clinician use to enhance lipid metabolism in the liver?

    Since you are a Gold Member, please consider asking @Jack Kruse during the June 2022 - Quantum Biologic PowWow this weekend. Let me know if you are willing. We could post his response as a reply to your thread.
    Last edited: Jun 17, 2022
    JanSz likes this.
  2. JanSz

    JanSz Gold

    I have already signed up for June 2022 PowWow.

    Possibly @Jack Kruse will see the question here and have time to answer it.
  3. He has never read from these questions before.
    He only answers questions asked during the PowWow.
    JanSz likes this.
  4. JanSz

    JanSz Gold

    Let's see what happens.
    I did asked the question,
    I submitted it while
    signing up for PowWow second time
    it was past the time allowed for submitting questions

    John Schumacher likes this.
  5. crix

    crix New Member

    Last edited: Sep 13, 2022
  6. Optogenetic EB1 inactivation shortens metaphase spindles by disrupting cortical force-producing interactions with astral microtubules

    • Light-sensitive π-EB1 allows spatiotemporal analysis of mitotic EB1 functions
    • Optogenetic π-EB1 inactivation rapidly and reversibly shortens metaphase spindles
    • EB1 functions in astral microtubule pruning without impacting microtubule growth ratEB1 is needed to engage dynein-mediated pulling forces on astral microtubules

    π-EB1 photoinactivation does not inhibit microtubule growth in metaphase but instead increases astral microtubule length and number. Yet in the absence of EB1 activity, astral microtubules fail to engage the cortical dynein/dynactin machinery, and spindle poles move away from regions of π-EB1 photoinactivation.​



    Optogenetic sleep enhancement improves fear-associated memory processing following trauma
    The goal of this work was to ascertain if post-trauma sleep increases are sufficient to improve fear-associated memory function. In our laboratory, optogenetic stimulation after trauma exposure was sufficient to increase REM sleep duration during both the Light and Dark Phase, whereas NREM sleep duration was only increased during the Dark Phase of the circadian day. Interestingly though, animals that received optogenetic stimulation showed significantly improved fear-associated memory processing compared to non-stimulated controls.

    Optogenetic stimulation of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) cells within the lateral hypothalamus (LH) results in increased REM and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep.

    Optogenetic stimulation of MCH cells was sufficient to increase REM sleep following SPS during both the Light and Dark Phases of the circadian day (Figs. 4, 5, 6). Interestingly, NREM sleep showed significant cumulative increases from baseline only during the Dark Phase, but not during the Light Phase.

    The optogenetically stimulated animals showed more REM sleep and better performance on a subsequent fear-associated memory task.

    Therefore, the optogenetic stimulation may have reset trauma exposed animals back to a normal level of functioning.​
    JanSz likes this.
  7. https://www.mightexbio.com/what-is-...Fe9cyGGJo8M2OSiwG6O5Nfa-3-JEABIBoCoToQAvD_BwE

    Non-invasive red-light optogenetic control of Drosophila cardiac function

    Drosophila is a powerful genetic model system for cardiovascular studies. Recently, optogenetic pacing tools have been developed to control Drosophila heart rhythm noninvasively with blue light, which has a limited penetration depth. Here we developed both a red-light sensitive opsin expressing Drosophila system and an integrated red-light stimulation and optical coherence microscopy (OCM) imaging system.

    We demonstrated noninvasive control of Drosophila cardiac rhythms using a single light source, including simulated tachycardia in ReaChR-expressing flies and bradycardia and cardiac arrest in halorhodopsin (NpHR)-expressing flies at multiple developmental stages.

    By using red excitation light, we were able to pace flies at higher efficiency and with lower power than with equivalent blue light excitation systems.

    The recovery dynamics after red-light stimulation of NpHR flies were observed and quantified. The combination of red-light stimulation, OCM imaging, and transgenic Drosophila systems provides a promising and easily manipulated research platform for noninvasive cardiac optogenetic studies.​

    e Three pacing strategies for red-light cardiac control. For each strategy, the upper trace shows the heart pulse change with time in the axial direction during rest. The middle trace shows the red-light pulse used for cardiac stimulation, and the lower trace shows heart pulse change with time in the axial direction with optical excitation.

    Compared to the blue light conventionally used for optogenetic pacing, light in the red to infrared range undergoes low scattering and absorption. Multiple red-shifted opsins have been engineered in the past several years to excite or inhibit neural or cardiomyocyte activities. Some red-shifted opsins have been applied in optogenetic control of deep tissue, such as controlling neuronal activities in the mouse cortex through an intact skull, and behavioral control of freely moving flies. Here, we leverage the features of red-shifted opsins to demonstrate non-invasive cardiac control through red-light stimulation.
    From a "Quantum" clinician's perspective, what is interesting to me is to why these modalities of treatment are not incorporated in conjunction with targeted cold thermal genesis for their patients.

    We have "quantum" MD's who tweet and post on various forums; however, none are talking about this.

    3rd Optogenetic Technologies and Applications Conference
    December 1, 2022 to December 3, 2022

    Linking Brain Circuits to Behavior: Novel Methods and Biological Insights Derived from Optogenetic Approaches
    Example speakers:
    Adam Hantman (UNC-CH, United States)
    "Optogenetic Exploration of the Neural Landscapes for Skill"

    Michael Lin (Stanford University, United States)
    "One- and Two-Photon Voltage Imaging With New ASAP-Family Indicators"
    ASAPs, when excited by blue light, undergo reversible photobleaching. We find that this fluorescence loss induced by excitation with 470-nm light can be substantially reversed by low-intensity 405-nm light. We demonstrate that 405-nm and 470-nm co-illumination significantly improved brightness and thereby signal-to-noise ratios during voltage imaging compared to 470-nm illumination alone. Illumination with a single wavelength of 440-nm light also produced similar improvements.

    A red fluorescent protein with improved monomericity enables ratiometric voltage imaging with ASAP3
    A ratiometric genetically encoded voltage indicator (GEVI) would be desirable for tracking transmembrane voltage changes in the presence of sample motion. We performed combinatorial multi-site mutagenesis on a cyan-excitable red fluorescent protein to create the bright and monomeric mCyRFP3, which proved to be uniquely non-perturbing when fused to the GEVI ASAP3. The green/red ratio from ASAP3-mCyRFP3 (ASAP3-R3) reported voltage while correcting for motion artifacts, allowing the visualization of membrane voltage changes in contracting cardiomyocytes and throughout the cell cycle of motile cells.​
    Last edited: Sep 25, 2022
  8. Steps along the way - Studies in "photobiological" science

    Is the photoactive yellow protein a UV-B/blue light photoreceptor?

    UV light below 300 nm is shown to generate the first photocycle intermediate in the blue light photoreceptor Photo active Yellow Protein (PYP). Fluorescence and ultrafast transient absorption measurements indicate two excitation pathways: UV-B absorption by the chromophore and Fluorescence Resonant Energy Transfer (FRET) from tryptophan and tyrosine residues​


    Ultraviolet radiation has significant consequences for life on Earth.
    To survive UV radiation, organisms have evolved protective mechanisms,including repair and avoidance mechanisms.
    For instance, DNA photolyases that use UV-A light (320–400nm) to repair pyrimidine dimers are widely distributed across the three kingdoms.
    UV-B photoreceptors,on the other hand, have proven difficult to identify and isolate owing to an abundance of UV chromophores, non-specific UV responses, and complex interactions between regulatory networks.
    An argument often assumed for the apparent lack of UV-B photoreceptors is that UV-A/blue light provides a proxyfor UV-B.
    Here, we report on UV-B-specific activity in a nominal blue light photoreceptor.

    Figure above:
    Emission spectra were obtained under 280nm excitation of samples with the same maximum absorbance (446 in wt and 445 nm in W119F). W119F PYP had UV fluorescence consistent with tyrosine emission, while Wt PYP primarily showed UV fluorescence from tryptophan, with the higher energy tyrosine emission apparently quenched by FRET from TyrtoTrp 119. Both proteins also showed weak visible emission characteristic of PYP under visible excitation of the chromophore.

    Two independent UV-B excitation pathways are proposed in PYP:
    (a) a transition to a non-LUMO state in the chromophore, denoted pCA
    (b) Trp119 absorption followed by FRET to pCA

    UV-B light is about half as efficient at initiating the PYP photocycle as blue light, with more than half of the UV photo activity arising from FRET from aromatic amino acids.

    FRET as a UV sensitization mechanism may shed new light on the in vivo biological function of PYP and other photo-receptors.
    Last edited: Oct 3, 2022
  9. We know Red/NIR light has been proposed to influence the photodissociation of light-induced nitric oxide (NO) from Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO), thereby allowing oxygen to reclaim its binding site on the binuclear center, formed of Cytochrome a3 and CuB, allowing ATP production process to resume. –

    Photoperturbation of the heme a3-CuB binuclear center of cytochrome c oxidase CO complex observed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.


    Figure above
    (a) Light as an electromagnetic wave.
    (b) Gaussian laser beam profile.
    (c) Snellius’ law of reflection.
    (d) Optical window because of minimized absorption and scattering of light by the most important tissue chromophores in the near-infrared spectral region.

    When the light strikes the biological tissue, part of it is absorbed, part is reflected or scattered, and part is further transmitted. Some of the light is reflected, this phenomenon is produced by a change in the air and tissue refractive index. The reflection obeys the law of Snellius (Figure above. 1c), which states:


    0(1) is the angle between the light and the surface normal in the air,
    0(2) is the angle between the ray and the surface normal in the tissue, n1 is the index of refraction of air, n2 is the index of refraction of tissue.

    The influence of LLLT on the electron transport chain extends far beyond simply increasing the levels of ATP produced by a cell. Oxygen acts as the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain and is, in the process, converted to water. Part of the oxygen that is metabolized produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a natural by-product. ROS are chemically active molecules that play an important role in cell signaling, regulation of cell cycle progression, enzyme activation, and nucleic acid and protein synthesis. Because LLLT promotes the metabolism of oxygen, it also acts to increase ROS production. In turn, ROS activates transcription factors, which leads to the upregulation of various stimulatory and protective genes. These genes are most likely related to cellular proliferation, migration, and the production of cytokines and growth factors, which have all been shown to be stimulated by low-level light.


    Two possible sources of nitric oxide (NO) release from cytochrome c oxidase (CCO).
    Path1 shows CCO can act as a nitrite reductase enzyme:
    Path 2 shows possible photodissociation of NO from CCO.

    Response to LLLT changes with wavelength, irradiance, time, pulses and maybe even coherence and polarization, the treatment should cover an adequate area of the pathology, and then there is a matter of how long to irradiate for.

    Dosimetry is best described in two parts,
    1. Irradiation parameters (‘‘the medicine’’) see Table 1
    2. Time/energy/fluence delivered (‘‘the dose’’) see Table 2


    Biphasic dose response in LLLT.
    Three dimensional plot illustrating effects of varying irradiation time equivalent to fluence or irradiance on the biological response resulting in stimulation or inhibition.
    Because of the limitations on how many images can be placed within a post, this will be continued on the next post.

  10. We know Red/NIR light has been proposed to influence the photodissociation of light-induced nitric oxide (NO) from Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO), thereby allowing oxygen to reclaim its binding site on the binuclear center, formed of Cytochrome a3 and CuB, allowing ATP production process to resume

    continued ...

    In Table 4: The light sources were all lasers unless LED is specifically mentioned. The laser parameters are given in the following order: wavelength (nm); power (mW), power density (mW/cm2); energy (J); energy density (J/cm2); mode (CW) or pulsed (Hz); spot size (cm2); illumination time (sec); treatment repetition. In many cases, the parameters are partially unavailable.


    It is well recognized that the Major pathways lead to NO formation in the skin primarily originating from exogenous and endogenous sources and subsequent nitration/nitrosation metabolic end reactions. Apart from dietary intake and endogenous stores of l-arginine, light-induced mobilization of NO is conceivable. Despite established NO release benefits via UVR and blue light, the use of longer wavelengths in the red/NIR spectrum remains to be determined. O2: oxygen, NO3: nitrate, NO2: nitrite, NOS: nitric oxide synthase, UVB: ultraviolet B, UVA: ultraviolet A, NIR: near-infrared, NO; nitric oxide.​

  11. Check it out - If you know someone with constipation, try ten to twenty minutes of the EMR Teck FireStorm aimed at their uncovered groin.


    In 41 patients with chronic constipation, one session of LLLT was executed, using red LED light at a wavelength of 660 nm for 10 minutes and infrared LED light at wavelength of 840 nm for 10 minutes followed by infrared laser light with wavelength of 825 nm for 20 minutes, while measuring the electrocardiogram.

    With a history of chronic constipation without ability to have spontaneous bowel movements for 5 years, symptoms improved from 13 to 8 (on a 20 scale) and quality of life improved from 1.5 to 2.5 (on a 0–4 scale) after 8 sessions. Sympathetic reactivity from supine to standing markedly reduced, from highly elevated measured as the Baevsky index from 55 to 153 s-2 it improved from 42 to 75 s-2 upon standing after 4 sessions.

    LLLT treatment of a patient with inability to generate spontaneous bowel movements, resulted in ability to have complete evacuations associated with marked reduction in sympathetic reactivity during the supine-standing test, after 4 LLLT sessions.

    Last edited: Oct 20, 2022
  12. MIT Study Photobiomodulation with 40 Hz Flicker

    Gamma frequency entrainment attenuates amyloid load and modifies microglia

    Here we show reduced, behaviourally driven gamma oscillations before the onset of plaque formation or cognitive decline.

    Optogenetically driving fast-spiking parvalbumin-positive (FS-PV)-interneurons at gamma (40Hz), but not other frequencies, reduces levels of amyloid-β (Aβ)1–40 and Aβ 1–42 isoforms. Gene expression profiling revealed induction of genes associated with morphological transformation of microglia, and histological analysis confirmed increased microglia co-localization with Aβ.

    After 40Hz stimulation, we found significantly reduced APP CTFs and NTF compared with eYFP and random controls.

    Thus, 40 Hz oscillations induced non-invasively via sensory entrainment reduced Aβ abundance and promoted microglia/ Aβ interactions.

    We found that 7 days of 1 h 40Hz visual flicker treatment reduced phosphorylated tau serine202 and serine404/ threonine403/serine400 levels in VC by 41.2% and 42.3%, respectively, and triggered microglia responses.

    Flickering lights at 40Hz frequency can induce that frequency in primary visual cortex.


    We recorded neural activity from hippocampal subregion CA1, where gamma has been particularly well characterized

    e, Number of Iba1-positive microglia (for f–i, one-way ANOVA; n=4 mice per group).
    f, Diameter of Iba1-positive microglia cell bodies.
    g, Average length of Iba1-positive microglia primary processes.
    h, Percentage of Iba1-positive microglia cell bodies that are also Aβ-positive.​

    Therapeutic Effects of Near Infrared Light Stimulation on Cognitive and Behaviour Symptoms of Dementia

    Low emission of transcranial near-infrared (tNIR) light can reach human brain parenchyma and be beneficial to a number of neurological and neurodegenerative disorders.

    Many patients reported improved sleep after ~7 days of treatment. Caregivers noted that patients had less anxiety, improved mood, energy, and positive daily routine after ~14-21 days of treatment. The tNIR light treatments demonstrated safety and positive cognitive improvements in patients with dementia. Developed treatment protocol can be conveniently used at home.
    How infrared light could reverse Alzheimer's - Paul Chazot


    Achieving Higher States of Consciousness with Low Energy Brain Stimulation | Dr. Sanjay Manchanda
    Last edited: Oct 28, 2022
  13. Effect of low-level laser therapy on mesenchymal stem cell proliferation: a systematic review

    Isn't interesting that the science of light-water-magnetism is so far behind! These authors see an effect, but don't know why.
    Throughout Dr. @Jack Kruse site, I present explanations as well as describing the mechanisms of action for these effects - enjoy ;)

    The capacity of accelerating the healing process is most likely related to the finding that LLLT promotes cell proliferation. It has been suggested that the energy of the laser is absorbed by intracellular chromophores and converted into metabolic energy, which is then used by the mitochondrial respiratory chain to produce ATP and increase DNA activity and the synthesis of RNA and proteins.​

    When applied to stem cells, it has been observed that laser therapy can promote both increased cell proliferation and contribute to the differentiation of these cells. Studies have used a wavelength range from 600 to 700 nm when the objective is to stimulate cell proliferation and differentiation.
    Note: The colors Orange 600-650, and Red 650-700 nm seem most effective.


    Table 2 summarizes the main parameters of the lasers used in the articles. There was a preference for using lower doses, being the dose of 0.05 J/cm2 as the lowest applied, 0.5 J/cm2 the most used [1, 9, 25, 28], and 42 J/cm2 the highest dose. Within the visible light spectrum, the lower power used in the experiments was 0.02 mW and the highest 119 mW, while in the invisible light spectrum, the lower power was 50 mW and the highest 800 mW.


    The action of LLLT on cell proliferation has been studied in many cell types such as fibroblasts, endothelial cells, neoplastic cells, and osteoblasts, but little is still known about the action of LLLT on the proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    In relation to the wavelength, although both red and infrared light have been reported to be effective for wound healing, pain attenuation, and cellular response in general, the literature reports that the spectrum of visible light (red) ranging from 600 to 700 nm provides more effective results for in vitro cell biostimulation.

    In this article, the influence of LLLT (808 nm, 800 mW, and 4 J/cm2 ) was evaluated based on the number of colony forming unit fibloblasts (CFU-F) in suspension. The nonirradiated group had a mean value of colonies higher than the irradiated group. We believe that not only the spectrum of light used influenced this result but also the high power which was used.

    Last edited: Nov 28, 2022

Share This Page