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1900 links for PBM studies

Discussion in 'Redox Rx' started by Jack Kruse, Dec 2, 2021.

  1. Jack Kruse

    Jack Kruse Administrator

  2. Johan Lindstrøm likes this.
  3. The first article listed in the list above is one I posted about a few times - Transvaginal Photobiomodulation for the Treatment of Chronic Pelvic Pain: A Pilot Study

    I'm very pleased to see you are "digging into" & examining the subject.

    You have a nice capacity for "connecting the dots". We would love to hear your perspective as you bring light onto these modalities.
    Last edited: Dec 3, 2021
    JanSz likes this.
  4. Ophthalmology - 2021 Dec 1 - A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial

    Red light therapy seemed to slow down myopia progression in Chinese children by 75 percent.​


    In this 12-month, multicenter randomized clinical trial, RLRL treatment slowed axial elongation by 0.26 mm and SER progression by 0.59 D compared with SVS, respectively, representing a 69.4% and 76.6% slowing axial elongation and myopic refraction progression.

    Supporting documentation:
    Children who spend more time outdoors are less likely to be or become myopic.
    Elevated light levels in schools have a protective effect on myopia
    Last edited: Dec 7, 2021
    Richard Watson likes this.
  5. The Efficacy of Low-Power Lasers in Tissue Repair and Pain Control: A Meta-Analysis Study

    Conclusions: These findings mandate the conclusion that laser phototherapy is a highly effective therapeutic armamentarium for tissue repair and pain relief.

    However -> Our findings that insufficient reporting of treatment parameters, inconsistencies in terminology, inadequate and/or inexplicable reporting of data or treatment outcome, and occasionally, lack of hardcore data are the major flaws of the literature, are well supported by previous studies.

    Even though this is an old article from Photomedicine and Laser Surgery Volume 22, Number 4, 2004 -
    I still find interesting that most of the important treatment parameters are missing from current articles as well.
  6. NIR light-assisted phototherapies for bone-related diseases and bone tissue regeneration: A systematic review
    NIR light-responsive nanomaterials have exhibited favorable photothermal and photodynamic properties in the NIR-I biowindow.


    The article (written in 2020) added, "Recently, a new family of two dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, named MXenes, have generated great interest because of their unique physiochemical performance and excellent photothermal conversion efficiency"

    When thinking about the "compliance" aqueous with gain-of-function nanoparticles (injections),
    Will NIR therapy thermodynamically "overheat" within the patient, specifically in neuron-fibers?


    Hopefully, the volume of product (fully vaccinated - two dose) plus booster will not provide enough nano material to respond thermodynamically.

    From an electromagnetic field perspective, there is a greater potential.
    Last edited: Dec 14, 2021
  7. Thermodynamic sensitivity and capacitance of Mercury

    General numbers for human values -> 98.6 F = 37 C = 310.5 K


    Pressure in kPa (in newtons per spare metre) by temperature in Kelvin
    For example, standard atmospheric pressure of 1 atm is definded as 101.325 kPa
    Vapor Pressure data for Mercury

    The boiling point of mercury over the temperature range 623 K to 636 K; however, Vapor-solid equilibrium along the sublimation pressure curve continued above the triple point becomes metastable relative to the liquid phase.


    Note: our human values -> 98.6 F = 37 C = 310.5 K -> Mercury gas density is near 53 ng/mL at 310.15 K

    Interpreting Mercury in Blood and Urine of Individual Patients –
    It comes problematic due to mercury’s ability to adhere to human cells without vaporization; thus will not circulate within blood serum.

    Advances in Infrared Imagers: Toward Thermodynamic and Quantum Limits of Photon Sensitivity

    Depending on the nano-material, light absorption and refraction respond thermodynamically.

    Emission rates from mercury http://zeiss-campus.magnet.fsu.edu/articles/lightsources/mercuryarc.html

    Mercury ions (Hg2+) dissolved in environmental water by plasmon-enhanced vibrational spectroscopy. We combined a nanogap-optimized mid-infrared plasmonic structure with mercury-binding DNA aptamers to monitor in-situ the spectral evolution of the vibrational signal of the DNA induced by the mercury binding.

    The human mercury load has been determined to be benign by the American Dental Association and other medical science; however, I can not find the scientific evidence for this assertion.

    It is my concern the Vapor-solid equilibrium along the sublimation pressure curve may increase with the excitation of Near Infrared radiation.

    Clinically handling this potential issue maybe part of a practitioner’s tool set.
  8. Successful Reduction of SARS-CoV-2 Viral Load by Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) Verified by QPCR – A Novel Approach in Treating Patients in Early Infection Stages
    Authors include: Hans Michael Weber - Laser Therapy and Research Center, Lauenfoerde, Germany

    Dr. Hans Michael Weber has multiple degrees in Chemistry, Biology, Medical school, etc. He has chosen Riboflavin-5-Phosphate B2 as the preferred photosensitizer.
    Due to the extensive knowledge of this naturally occurring compound, Riboflavin has been qualified by the US FDA as GRAS (Generally Regarded As Safe). It binds to the nucleic acid bases of virus RNA and upon UV-irradiation, specifically oxidizes the guanine bases in nucleic acids by a single electron transfer reaction. In followup reactions, ½ O2, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals are formed. This results in irreversible single strand breaks in nucleic acids with damaging of the pathogens.

    Riboflavin PDT has been shown to be effective against enveloped as well as a number of non-enveloped viruses – including HIV, West Nile virus, VSV, IAV, porcine parvovirus, pseudorabies virus, human hepatitis A virus (HAV), encephalomyocarditis virus, Sindbis virus, the MERS coronavirus among others. Riboflavin is the active photosensitizer in the MIRASOL Pathogen Reduction Technology System (Terumo BCT, Lakewood, CO, USA), which is used to treat platelet and plasma products. Moreover, it is also in use for pathogen reduction in whole blood. A new study published in the US in April 2020 showed that Covid-19 virus in plasma products can be eliminated below the limit of detection in a short time with Riboflavin and UV light.
    Resource: https://forum.jackkruse.com/index.php?posts/307570

    So the question maybe: Could a practitioner consider this protocol for "breakthrough" vaccinated patients?
    -> maybe or maybe not -> COVID-19 Vaccination​

    We may want to education ourselves concerning the difference between contracting a COVID infection "naturally" and injecting a clone of the virus with SPIKE protein encapsulated in a 4 PEGylated lipid nano particles (PEG = polyethylene glycol). Please see:
  9. Photobiomodulation Therapy (PBMT) in Peripheral Nerve Regeneration: A Systematic Review

    It has been observed that the diversity of PBMT application protocols in nerve lesions is large, with the wavelength varying from 632.8 to 904 nm, a varied range of energy and energy density, in addition to the time of application, despite the similarity in the type of lesion targeted in each experiment. As shown, the infrared spectrum has good experimental results. The red spectrum (600 to 700 nm) was seen in 15 studies with satisfactory morphological and electrophysiological results, immunological factors, and tissue markers.


    Please pull up the referenced article to read a study of interest. For example:

    Yang et al. [44], when associating PBMT with MSC, demonstrated a better electrophysiological function, immunoreactivity of S100, and fewer inflammatory cells. de Oliveira Martins et al. [45] demonstrated that PBMT (904 nm) had better nociception, greater expression of neural growth factor (NGF) 53% and neurotrophic factor expression (BDNF) 40%. As seen, Gomes; Dalmarco; André [46] evidenced that PBMT (632.8 nm) increased mRNA expression, BDNF and NGF factors after 14 days and maximum expression was observed on day 21. PBMT (660 nm) improved functional index, reduced HIF-1a, TNF-a, and IL-1b, elevated VEGF, NGF, and S100, and decreased tissue ischemia and inflammation [47]. Sene et al. [48] (830 nm) observed that PBMT did not accelerate nerve recovery and the study by Dias et al. [49] when associating PBMT (780 nm) with latex protein also did not find positive results.

    [44] Yang, C.C.; Wang, J.; Chen, S.C.; Hsieh, Y.L. Synergistic effects of low-level laser and mesenchymal stem cells on functional recovery in rats with crushed sciatic nerves. J. Tissue Eng. Regener. Med. 2016, 10, 120–131. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

    [45]. De Oliveira Martins, D.; Martinez dos Santos, F.; Evany de Oliveira, M.; de Britto, L.R.; Benedito Dias Lemos, J.; Chacur, M. Laser therapy and pain-related behavior after injury of the inferior alveolar nerve: Possible involvement of neurotrophins. J. Neurotrauma 2013, 30, 480–486. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

    [46.] Gomes, L.E.; Dalmarco, E.M.; André, E.S. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor, neurotrophin-3, and induced nitric oxide synthase expressions after low-level laser therapy in an axonotmesis experimental model. Photomed. Laser Surg. 2012, 30, 642–647. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

    [47]. Hsieh, Y.L.; Chou, L.W.; Chang, P.L.; Yang, C.C.; Kao, M.J.; Hong, C.Z. Low-level laser therapy alleviates neuropathic pain and promotes function recovery in rats with chronic constriction injury: Possible involvements in hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α). J. Comp. Neurol. 2012, 520, 2903–2916. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

    [48]. Sene, G.A.; Sousa, F.F.; Fazan, V.S.; Barbieri, C.H. Effects of laser therapy in peripheral nerve regeneration. Acta Ortop. Bras. 2013, 21, 266–270. [CrossRef] [PubMed] Bioengineering 2018, 5, 44 12 of 12

    [49]. Dias, F.J.; Issa, J.P.; Coutinho-Netto, J.; Fazan, V.P.; Sousa, L.G.; Iyomasa, M.M.; Papa, P.C.; Watanabe, I.S. Morphometric and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy analysis of low-level laser therapy and latex protein (Hevea brasiliensis) administration following a crush injury of the sciatic nerve in rats. J. Neurol. Sci. 2015, 349, 129–137. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

    [50] Moore, P.; Ridgway, T.D.; Higbee, R.G.; Howard, E.W.; Lucroy, M.D. Effect of wavelength on low-intensity laser irradiation-stimulated cell proliferation in vitro. Lasers Surg. Med. 2005, 36, 8–12. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A Six-week Low-level Laser Therapy Protocol is Effective for Reducing Waist, Hip, Thigh, and Upper Abdomen Circumference

    Clinical studies demonstrating the effectiveness of LLLT have used red diodes emitting light at a wavelength of 635nm applied for 40 minutes (20 minutes to front and back) three times weekly for two weeks or green diodes emitting light at a wavelength of 532nm for 30 minutes (15 minutes to front and back) three times weekly for two weeks.
  11. JanSz

    JanSz Gold

    time 9:20 power and treatment distance
    at 15-16" 70-75 mWatts/cm^2 , (every 15 seconds you get a one Joule of energy)
    10 -60 Joule for deep tissue treatment---> 2.5 minutes to 15 minutes, 15"-16" away
    for skin
    treatment you can go 30" away (time 11:40)
    want 3 to 15 Joules of absorbed energy
    for skin treatment 2-10 minutes 30" away to cover whole body
    time: 12 minutes

    every 40 seconds one Joule of absorbed energy

    EMR FireStorm Review and Dosage Times
    Jan 23, 2020
    John Schumacher likes this.
  12. Vestibular dysfunction is most commonly caused by head injury, aging, and viral infection.
    Treatment of peripheral vestibular dysfunction using photobiomodulation
    Long wavelength red/NIR light, which is typically used in photobiomodulation, enables deeper penetration and less scattering. This means that photobiomodulation can be used to treat deep organs such as those in the inner ear. The inner ear comprises the cochlea (hearing organ) and the vestibular organ (balancing organ), which are located adjacent to one another and form a fluid-filled cavity with a bony wall.​

    A Potential Role for Photobiomodulation (PBM) Therapy in Disease Treatment and Prevention in the Era of COVID-19
    The main target of PBM is considered to be the electron transport chain of the mitochondria, in particular complex IV, cytochrome-C-oxidase, which acts as a chromophore, absorbing red and near infrared light.

    The most effective wavelength for delivery of PBM in immune modulation is likely to be in the red and near-infrared range, based on the cytochrome-C-oxidase and porphyrin absorption peaks being centred at 640 nm and HbO2 at 900nm. The energy required for effective PBM is low, in the range of 1 to 16 joules/cm2.

    The immuno-modulatory effect of PBM on cytokines regulation and the complement cascade occurs via the POMC pathway, involving regulation of the hypothalamic pituitary axis through the direct modulation of the POMC/melanocortin signalling pathway including a-MSH, a potent anti-inflammatory molecule. The POMC pathway is regulated by PBM, which in turn modulates both ACTH and β-opioid, as well as, interestingly, ACE activity

    Reducing over-accumulation of neutrophils is a major mechanism for the effect of PBM in reducing acute lung inflammation. This is crucial in preventing the cytokine storm cascade in autoimmune diseases. PBM also modulates the ratio of M1 and M2 macrophage phenotypes, reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and increasing anti-inflammatory cytokines and thus balance the inflammatory process.

    In immunological cells, PBM induces production of reactive oxygen species, NO or interleukins most often, leading to an anti-inflammatory effect.

    PBM has been shown to restore the balance between pro and antioxidant mediators by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α) and increasing anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10).​

    What is interest in the use of transcranial PBM to address many symptoms of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Transcranial devices have been shown to modulate neural oscillations, improve cognition in healthy adults, improve cognitive performance of people with TBIs and improve symptoms of depression. We have demonstrated a positive effect of PBM therapy in improvement of cognition scores in individuals with Parkinson’s disease (manuscript in preparation).​

    Headaches & Dizziness
    Blurred Vision
    Brain Fog
    Anxiety & Depression​
    Red Light Stimulation Applied To The Skull Has Shown:
    Increase Cerebral Blood Flow
    Increase Oxygen Consumption
    Increase Energy Production To The Brain
    Boost ATP Production
    Reduce Inflammation​

    Ok great, so how much does it take to see improvements? -> It depends on how bad off you are and how you respond to the therapy
    But a general idea is "640 nm and HbO2 at 900nm with the energy in the range of 1 to 16 joules/cm2."
    As you can tell from the posts, some individuals are having success with only 20 minutes twice daily.
    Penny likes this.
  13. Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) for Neck Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-Regression

    Subjects included:
    Disorder Subtype 1 - Cervical Osteoarthritis, Subtype 2 - Myofascial Pain Syndrome, Type 3 – Chronic Neck Pain, Subtype 4 – Acute Neck Pain with Radiculopathy​

    Therapies reviewed:
    LLLT (830 nm or 904 nm) + Exercise versus Placebo Laser + Exercise
    LLLT (780 nm) + Exercise Versus Exercise
    LLLT + Deep Friction Massage Versus Manipulation
    LLLT (830 nm) Versus Acupuncture​

    Penny likes this.
  14. Muhammad Choudhry

    Muhammad Choudhry New Member

    Hi all

    I am a bit confused. I reading papers and seeing products on the market that show that Far Infrared light has significant benefits for chronic disease treatment. The far infrared ranges from 4 to 20 microns.

    Why is the EMR TEK or Mitogen products not contain Far infrared wavelengths?

    I am trying to get my head around this. Will appreciate your help.
  15. The sauna industry is full of "data" showing far infrared heat penetrates deeper than near infrared.
    The mechanism for far infrared heat generation is different than near infrared led technology.

    The first question we may want to ask should be, What am I trying to do?

    If its heat penetration, then it's thermal far infrared. A quartz infrared device will do the job quite well.
    Just set up two of these and place yourself between them. You will feel the heat instantly. If you last 20 minutes, you get a gold star. ;)

    If its light delivery your looking for, then there are two options: LED or Incandescent bulbs.
    Last edited: Jan 5, 2022
  16. Marja Frankson

    Marja Frankson New Member

  17. Prostate Phantom for 980nm Laser Interstitial Thermal Therapy

    A) Clinical setup during MR-US fusion guided LITT for the treatment of prostate cancer. LITT was performed in the region of interest (ROI) for 3 min. at 13.75W with a 980nm laser. A thermal probe was used to record temperature.

    Absolute temperature (°C) during LITT of the optimized phantom as determined by MRT at 0 (A), 90 (B) and 180 (C) seconds after laser activation. The location of the laser fiber (dashed red line) and thermal probe (dashed black line) are marked

    In the native state μa and μ′s have been reported as 0.66cm−1 and 8.1cm−1 in human prostate at 980nm.
  18. Laser meridian massage - Decreases opiod use

    Laser meridian massage (LMM) refers to the use of laser acupuncture to stimulate the meridian with low-intensity, cold laser irradiation. The study participants received 12 LMM sessions three times per week for 4 weeks using a gallium aluminum arsenide LaserPen (maximal power, 150 mW; wavelength, 810 nm; area of probe, 0.5 cm2; power density, 300 mW/cm2; pulsed-wave; and frequencies [Bl, 667 Hz; B4, 4796 Hz]; RJ-Laser, Reimers & Janssen GmbH, Waldkirch, Germany). Laser treatment was applied to the back, including the Bladder meridian (BL11–BL25) and Governor Vessel (GV3–GV14; and 3), for 15 min, to deliver a total treatment dose of 67.5 J/cm2.


    Meridians used for heroin addiction. Bladder meridian (BL11-BL25) and Governor Vessel (GV3-GV14)

    Outcomes were assessed at 2 and 4 weeks after the first visit; these included subjective reporting of heroin use, quality of life, and objective urinary morphine levels. The primary outcomes were urinary morphine levels and self-reported heroin use (times or days) during the previous week. The secondary outcomes were self-reported visual analog scale (VAS) scores for heroin craving/refusal to use heroin (0–10 points) in the previous week and the quality of life, assessed using the Short Form-12v2® (SF-12v2), before and after 4 weeks of treatment. The participants’ heart rate variability before and after a single treatment session was also recorded. The evaluations were performed by one well-trained senior research assistant who was blinded to the group allocation.

    Acupuncture at HT7 significantly reduced the self-administration of morphine and modulated the enhancement of morphine by regulating gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors. In our study, LMM at GV3-GV14 and BL11-BL25 decreased heroin craving in OUD.

    Acupuncture suppresses morphine self-administration through the GABA receptors
    The acupuncture HT7 seem to regulate the reinforcing effects of morphine via regulation of GABA receptors.
  19. In his post https://forum.jackkruse.com/index.p...electric-disease-too.22868/page-2#post-308592
    Jack referenced "The Growing Evidence for Photobiomodulation as a Promising Treatment for Alzheimer’s Disease" https://file.scirp.org/Html/89418_89418.htm
    What interested me is -> "The gamma pulse frequency of 40 Hz demonstrated to attenuate Aβ proteins production in the visual cortex"​

    When we look at amyloid plaque as a mechanism for Alzheimers we find that ->

    The numbers of Aβ plaques were significantly reduced in the brain by administration of PBM in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of PBM produced a dose-dependent reduction in amyloid load, soluble AβPPα, and brain inflammatory markers. ATP levels, mitochondrial function, and c-fos were all increased.
    Last edited: Jan 13, 2022

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